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NCERT Solutions for Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements

Chapter 11 The p-Block Elements:

Section NameTopic Name
11The p-Block Elements
11.1Group 13 Elements: The Boron Family
11.2Important Trends and Anomalous Properties of Boron
11.3Some Important Compounds of Boron
11.4Uses of Boron and Aluminium and their Compounds
11.5Group 14 Elements: The Carbon Family
11.6Important Trends and Anomalous Behaviour of Carbon
11.7Allotropes of Carbon
11.8Some Important Compounds of Carbon and Silicon
The p Block Elements
 Class 11th Chemistry  Notes and NCERT Solution

Introduction of p- block

The p Block Elements
  • P block is present at extreme right of periodic table.
  • It has general electronic configuration ns2np1-6.
  • It includes solids, liquids and gases.
  • The elements of this group are metal, non- metal and metalloids.
  • If we move along period in periodic table, non-metallic character increases and if we move down the group, the non-metallic character decreases.
  • In this group: As we move down, the lower oxidation state becomes more stable due to” Inert pair effect.”

Inert pair effect : It is “reluctance in the participation of s electrons in bond formation due to poor shielding effect by d and f orbital .As a result, s electrons are tightly bounded .

1st member is different from its congeners due to:

  • Small size
  • Highest ionization energy.
  • High electro-negativity.
  • No vacant d orbital.
  • They show maximum co-valence of 4 because of no vacant d orbital.
  • First member also has tendency to form multiple bonds because in them p can takes place (because of its small size) .
The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry. www.free-education.in provide study material to excel in exams.

Physical properties of group 13:

  1. Atomic size and Ionic radii:
  • If we compare group 11 with group 13, then group 13 is smaller due to increased nuclear charge.

           Example: Out of Be and B ,Boron is smaller .

  • Down the group, size increases because nuclear charge decreases (due to addition of new shell).
  • Expected order : B <Al<Ga<In<Tl
  • But actual the order is :BGa<In<Tl
  • The reason behind it: Is due to filling of d-orbital in Gallium, the effective nuclear charge on valence electron increases (because of poor shielding effect by d and f orbital).
  • Therefore, nucleus pull electron more effectively and size decreases.
  • That is the reason, Gallium is smaller than Aluminum (because Gallium has d-electrons and Aluminum doesn’t have) .
  1. Ionization energies
  • If we compare ionization energy of group 13 and group 2, we can say that the ionization of group 13 is more, because of their small size and increased nuclear charge.
  • But actually group 2 has high ionization energy, than group 13 due to completely filled s orbital in group 2 elements.
  • In case of Be and B, the electronic configuration of Be is 1s22s2 and in boron it is 1s22s22p1. So, due to this reason the ionization energy of Boron is less than Beryllium.

Down the group ionization energy decreases, as the size increase and nuclear charge decrease.

So , the expected order is : B>Al>Ga>In>Tl

But actually it is : B>AlIn>Tl due to poor shielding effect by d electrons in gallium.

  1. Electronegativity: If we compare with group 2, they are more electronegative due to increased nuclear charge.

Along group: It decreases, but the expected order is this B>AlIn>Tl.

 This is due to poor shielding effect.

  1. Electropositive character: As compared to group 2, they are less electropositive due to increased nuclear charge.

Down the group: The size increases. Therefore, metallic character increases.

B                        Al                        Ga                 In                        Tl

Non metal                 amphoteric                      less metallic                    metallic                     metallic

  1. Oxidation state: It depends on electronic configuration .As their electronic configuration is nsnp.So, oxidation states shown by them are +3,+1.
  • Boron: Shows exceptional behavior because of its small size and high ionization energy .It actually faces difficulty in loosing electrons .Therefore, it forms covalent bond.

B      Al      Ga   In  Tl

(+3)   (+3)    (+3,+1) (+3,+1)  (+1)                                                                                     

This is basically due to inert pair effect.

Chemical properties of group 13

  • Out of all elements of this group, Boron is non-reactive. This is because of its small size as it has high ionization energy .So, reactivity increases down the group.

            B               <        Al                  <     Ga            <     In                 <       Tl

Boron                                     aluminum                              Gallium                         indium                                thallium

  • In this Boron is least reactive because of its small size and high ionization energy and Thallium is most reactive because of its low ionization energy.
  • Aluminum: When react initially, it keeps reacting .But after some time, a layer of its oxide is formed over its surface. This layer prevent it from further reacting .So, it becomes passive after some time.
  • Most of the compounds of this group are electron deficient that is their octet is not complete. So, they behave as Lewis acids.

            Example: BX3 (only 6 electrons in valence shell of Boron).

            Therefore, it forms coordinate bond.

                       BX3 + NH3–>[NH3–>BF3]coordinate bond

                                                  Boron halide   ammonia

  • That means, they have tendency to take electrons. Or, we can say they are Lewis acids. But down the group, acidic character decreases (that is tendency to attract incoming electron decreases).

BX3>               AlX3 >          GaX3           >InX3                 >TlX3

boron halide    aluminum halide    gallium halide   indium halide         thallium halide

  • Lewis acid strength decreases because size increases .As a result, attraction towards incoming electron decreases.
  1. Reactivity towards oxygen : Forms oxides
  • Boron does not react with oxygen at ordinary temperature due to small size and high ionization energy.
  • If we react Al with oxygen, it reacts at normal temperature. With time it forms a protective layer of oxide on its surface. This layer makes it non reactive.

                Al   +3O2 –>2Al2O3

                                                    aluminum   oxygen   aluminum oxide

  • They react with nitrogen gas also, to form compound with formula EN.

Example: 6Al +3N2–>6AlN

                    aluminum      nitrogen     aluminum nitride

  • If we see acidic strength of oxides, then it decreases down the group.

BeO             Al2O3           GaO                   InO             TlO

beryllium oxide     aluminum oxide     gallium oxide             indium oxide             thallium oxide

                  (acidic)                     (amphoteric)                                        (all are basic)

  1. Reaction with water: Hydroxides are formed of type E(OH)
  • Boron does not react with water.
  • Aluminum reacts with cold water that is :

Al  + H2O –> Al(OH)3 + H2

                     Aluminium  water   aluminium hydroxide  hydrogen gas

  • Gallium and indium neither react with cold water nor with hot water.
  • Thallium reacts with water but form protective layer which make it passive.
  1. 3. Reactivity towards acids and bases:
  • Boron doesn’t react with acids and bases at normal temperature, but reacts with strong acids.
  • Aluminum reacts with acid and base because it is amphoteric in nature.

           Al + HCl–>AlCl3 + H2

           aluminum hydrogen chloride   aluminum chloride  hydrogen gas

           Al + NaOH –>[NaAl(OH)4]

                                        Aluminum    sodium hydroxide      sodium tetrahydroxoaluminate

  • Al when react with nitric acid, initially it reacts but after same time it became passive.
  1. Reaction with Halogens: Form halides of type EX3

                      2B +3X2–>2BX3

                                    boron    halogen     boron halide

                       B +F2 –>BF3

                                    boron halogen   boron halide

                       Al +Cl2àAlCl3

                       aluminum  chlorine   aluminum chloride

                             All halides are Lewis bases.

Important trends

  1. Formation of Hydrides : EH3
  • Thermal stability of hydrides decrease down the group .Out of all, only BH3 is stable.

BnHn+4 , BnHn+6=  Boranes

Simplest Borane :B2H6(diborane )

  • This diborane has banana bond and it is weak Lewis acid.
  1. Formation of Halides: They form their respective halides. Out of all halides aluminum chloride AlCl3exist as dimer that is Al2Cl(all halides behave as Lewis acids)
  • They will behave as Lewis acids only, if they attract incoming electrons.
  • Trends of strength of Lewis acids :
  • BF3>AlCl3>BBr3>BI3(expected order)
  • BF3<AlCl3>BBr3>BI3(actual)

Explained on the basis of back bonding:

  • In case of BF3, in Boron there is one vacant 2p orbital ( i.e 2s2,2p1)in ground state.
  • In excited state, it will be 2s1, 2pand energy of 2p orbital of B and F are almost similar.
  • As a result, one of the 2p filled orbital overlaps sidewise with the vacant 2p orbital of boron atom resulting in transfer of electrons from Fluorine to vacant 2p orbital.
  • This is called back bonding.
  • Now it doesn’t have fewer electrons therefore, Boron no longer act as a Lewis acid.
  • As size increases, the tendency of back bonding decrease and acidic strength increase.

Uses of Boron

  1. Boron is used as semi conductor for making electrical appliances.
  2. It is used in steel industry for hardening.
  3. Its compounds like borax and boric acid are used in glass industry.
  4. Borax is used for soldering metals.
  5. Borax fibers are used in making bullets.

Uses of Aluminum

  1. It is soft and light metal, non toxic and is used for wrapping food items.
  2. It I used in making electric power cables.
  3. It is used as packaging of food items.
  4. It is used I making cans for cold drink etc.

Alloys of Aluminum

  • Bronze : Aluminum and Copper are its constituents .It is used for making coins ,jewellery etc
  • Magnalium: its constituents are Al and Mg.

           It is used for making pressure cookers, balance beams etc.

  • Duralumin: its constituents are: Al, Cu, Mg and Mn.

It is used for making bodies of air craft’s, helicopters, ships etc.

  • ALNICO: Its constituents are AL, Ni and Cobalt.

It is used in making powerful magnets.

Borax

  1. Borax: Na2B4O7.10H2O
The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry. www.free-education.in provide study material to excel in exams.
The p Block Elements

Preparation  

  • From Colemanite ore: It is prepared from Colemanite ore (calcium ore).
  • In this ore is made to react with sodium carbonate.
  • Then it is heated as shown in reaction :

Ca2B6O11 + Na2CO3—> CaCO3 +Na2B4O7 + NaBO2

Colemanite ore   sodium carbonate    calcium carbonate  Borax   sodium metaborate

  • The solution has White precipitate.
  • When these precipitates are filtered, the solution becomes concentrated.
  • Finally, we get crystals of borax on cooling.
  • From Boric acid : In this also boric acid is made to react with Sodium carbonate to form Borax ,carbon dioxide and water as shown below:

H3BO3 + Na2CO3—>Na2B4O7 + CO2 + H2O

Boric acid    sodium carbonate    borax      carbon dioxide     water

PROPERTIES OF BORAX

  • It is white crystalline solid.
  • On heating, it loses water of crystallization and form Na2B4O
  • On further heating, it gives white transparent liquid which further on cooling gives white transparent bead.
  • This bead is made to react with different types of salts.
  • When reacted ,it gives different colour with different metal ions like :

With Ni2+–>brown

With Co2+–>blue

With Cr3+àgreen

With Mn2+–>pink

With Cu2+–>blue

Uses of Borax

  • It is used in laboratory as Borax bead test.
  • It is used in making enamels for pottery.
  • It is used in candle making.
  • It is added in soaps due to its antiseptic properties.
  • It is used in optical glass.
  1. Ortho boric acid

Chemical Formula :- H3BO3 or B(OH)3

The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
The p Block Elements

Preparation: It is prepared from Borax.

Na2B4O7.10H2O + HCl +H2O–>H3BO3 + NaCl

 Borax                hydrochloric acid      boric acid  sodium chloride

Properties

  • It is white crystalline solid with soapy touch.
  • It is sparingly soluble in cold water but soluble in hot water.
  • At 373k, it forms metaboric acid.
  1. Boron hydrides

The molecular formula is BnH2n+4

The common hydride is :B2H6 that is diborane.

The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
The p Block Elements
The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
The p Block Elements
  • Both the Boron will have in total 2 empty d orbital.
  • Each 2p orbital overlaps with 1s orbital of H atoms.
  • The 2 hybrid orbital left on each Boron atom contain an unpaired electron and other is empty.
  • The orbital containing one electron of one boron atom and the other empty orbital of second boron atom form a bond with hydrogen atom simultaneously to give B-H-B bond.
  • Each Boron form 2 covalent bond.
  • Out of 3 unpaired electrons, the left electron of both the boron is 2 and of 2 Hydrogen atom is also 2.
  • Therefore, it forms 3 bonds instead of 2 bonds.
The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
The p Block Elements

Physical Properties of group 14

  1. Atomic size: If we compare its size with group 13, then size of group 13 elements is bigger than group 14. As group 14 elements are smaller due to increased nuclear charge.

 Along group: As we move down size increases, as each time a new shell is being added.

  1. Ionization energy: It is amount of energy required to remove electron from last shell of an atom ,when it is in gaseous state .We know ionization energy is inversely proportional to size therefore , ionization of group 14 is higher than group 13, due to its small size .

Along group: Ionization energy decreases because size increases. If we look at the trend of ionization energy we see certain abnormality:

C           > Si           >  Ge             >Sn              <Pb

Carbon         silicon                germanium                Tin                  lead

As we move from tin to lead ,the ionization energy increase due to poor shielding effect of 4 f orbital in Lead .

  1. Melting point and Boiling point

 The boiling point of group 14 is higher than group 13 .As they form covalent bonds because of their small size.

As we move down the group melting and boiling point decreases due to increase in size, bonds formed are not so strong.

C           > Si           >  Ge             >Sn              >Pb

Carbon         silicon                germanium                Tin                  lead

4 .Metallic character

  • The tendency to lose electrons depends upon ionization energy or, we can say that less is the ionization energy, more is the metallic character.
  • If we compare for group 13 and group 14, we see that group 13 is more metallic due to big size and low ionization energy.
  • Down the group metallic character increases as size increase and ionization energy decreases. Therefore, the order is :
  • C Si Ge             Sn              Pb
  • Carbon      silicon                germanium         Tin                  lead

    (non metals )                  (metalloid )             (metals )

  1. Oxidation states

This    group can show oxidation states +4 and +2.

  • Carbon: Due to high ionization energy, sharing is preferred in case of it. So, oxidation state shown is 4.
  • Silicon,Ge, Tin : They commonly show +4.
  • Lead: Show +2 due to inert pair effect.
  • All these elements have special property that is,if they are present in +2 oxidation state they act as reducing agents .

             Example: Tin (Sn+2)

Chemical properties of group 14

They are non reactive but reactivity goes on increasing down the group due to decrease in ionization energy.

  1. Reactivity towards oxygen : They form two types of oxides
  • Monoxides (MO)
  • Dioxides (MO2)

That is :

  • Monoxides : CO,SiO,GeO,SnO,PbO
  • Dioxides: CO2,SiO2,GeO2,SnO2,PbO

Out of them:

  • Co: Neutral
  • SiO: is not so stable
  • GeO: Weakly acidic
  • SnO and PbO : Amphoteric
  • CO2,SiO2 : Acidic
  • GeO2: Amphoteric
  • SnO2 and PbO2: weakly basic

Out of them, CO Is strongest reducing agent because it has ability to accept oxygen and form stable oxide that is carbon dioxide .The solid form of carbon dioxide is called dry ice and the commercial name of dry ice is drikold. Out of them PbO2 is strongest oxidizing agent .

  1. Reaction with water: They form hydroxides.
  • In this group, Carbon does not react with water.
  • Tin reacts with steam forming SnO2+H
  • Ge,Sn Pb –do not react with water due to formation of protective layer of oxide on it .
  1. Reaction with halogens: Halides are formed (EX4).

The halides formed are :

CCl4SiCl4             GeCl4             SnCl4           PbCl4

                                                              SnCl2           PbCl2

All are tetrahedral in nature.

Structure of CCl4:

The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
The p Block Elements
  1. Reaction with hydrogen : hydrides are formed (EH4)

         They form respective hydrides:

  • CH4 SiH4      GeH4        Sn and Pb do not form as they are less reactive towards hydrogen.
  • Carbon has maximum tendency to form hydrides in its own family .these hydrides have covalent bonding in them and a tetrahedral geometry.

Allotropes of carbon

Allotropes: Are the different forms of elements having same physical properties but different chemical properties.

Allotropes of carbon

  • Crystalline form :Diamond ,Graphite and Fullerene
  • Amorphous forms of carbon : Coke ,Charcoal ,lamp black
  • Diamond

 In this carbon is sp3 hybridized .Each carbon attached to four carbon atom giving rise to compact three dimensional structures given below:

The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
  • The layers are held by weak Vander wall forces, such that they can slide over one another.

Properties and Uses of diamond and graphite

  • Diamond
  • It is hardest substance. Therefore, used as cutting tool.
  • It is bad conductor of electricity because it has no free electrons.
  • Graphite: It has soft structure because of Vander wall forces in it.
  • Therefore, used as Lubricant.
  • It is used to make pencil leads, as it marks the paper black.
  • Moreover, it is good conductor of electricity as it has free electrons.

Uses of Diamond

  • It is used as cutting tool.
  • It is used in making jewellery.
  • It is used in manufacturing of tungsten filament.

Uses of Graphite

  • It is making electrodes.
  • It is used as lubricant
  • It is mixed with clay or wax to make lead pencils
  • It is used to making moderator of nuclear reactor.

   Both Diamond and Graphite are crystalline forms of Carbon.

  • Fullerenes: It is having many Carbon atoms ranging from C32 to CIt was studied in 1985 and after 10 years it came in notice or structure. The carbon atoms are in a shape of football .

Buckminster form :

The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
  • Amorphous forms of Carbon : In this the molecules are arranged in haphazard manner .
  • Coke: Used as fuel.
  • Charcoal : Is porous

Types of Charcoal:

  • Wood charcoal
  • Animal charcoal
  • Sugar charcoal

(They are obtained by destructive distillation of wood, sugar etc).

  • Charcoal is good absorbent, if dipped in colored solution it will adsorb all colours, leaving behind colorless solution.

Uses of Carbon

  1. It is used in the form of fuel.
  2. It is used in manufacturing of coal gas, water gas etc.
  3. It is also used as a good reducing agent in metallurgy.
  4. It is activated charcoal and is used as catalyst.

Uses of Silicon

  1. It is used to form n-type or p-type semiconductor.
  2. It is important component of glass and cement.
  3. Pure Si is used to make computer chips.

Uses of germanium

  1. It is used in transistors.
  2. It is making for lenses and prism.
  3. It is used as scientific apparatus.

Uses of lead

  1. It is used for making lead sheets and pipes.
  2. It is used for telephone wires.
  3. It is used in storage batteries and bullets.

Uses of Tin

  1. It is used for electroplating.
  2. It is used in making alloys: Pb, Cu and Sn.
  3. It is a type metal: Pb ,Sn ,Sb.

Carbon monoxide (CO)

Preparation

  • It is prepared from incomplete combustion of carbon as given in reaction below :

C + ½ O2  –>CO

Carbon oxygen   carbon monoxide

  • Heating Methanoic acid in presence of sulphuric acid at temperature 473-1273 k.

HCOOH + H2SO4— >CO + H2O

Methanoic acid     sulphuric acid      carbon monoxide  and water

  • Commercial preparation: Heating Coke with water at high temperature.

C + H2O  –> CO + H2

Carbon  water       syn gas

If we mix carbon in air :

C + O2+ 4N2  –> CO + N2

  carbon   oxygen   nitrogen    carbon monoxide and nitrogen gas

Properties

  • It is colourless and odourless.
  • It is insoluble in water.
  • It is highly toxic in nature as it combines with Haemoglobin,to form defective complex .As a result, the oxygen carrying capacity of RBC gets reduced.
  • It burns in air to form carbon dioxide.

Uses

  • It acts as reducing agent in extraction of metals.
  • It reacts with certain metals to form Metal carbonyls.
  • It forms synthesis gas that has industrial advantage.
  • It forms producer gas that has industrial advantage.

Carbon dioxide (CO2)

Preparation

  • From complete combustion of Carbon and Carbon containing fuels in excess of air:

                     C + O— >CO2

                           carbon oxygen carbondioxide

                  CH4+ O–.>CO2 + H2O

                        Methane   carbon dioxide and water

Properties

  • It is colourless and odourless.
  • It is soluble in water.
  • It is non supporter of combustion.
  • It combines with water to for Carbonic acid (weak dibasic acid).

     Uses

  • It forms carbonic acid which undergo dissociation as :

This H2CO3 and HCO3 helps in maintaining pH of blood between 7.26  to     7.42.

  • Carbon dioxide is used by plants for photosynthesis: If the percentage of this gas increases in atmosphere, it has adverse affect like green house effect, which further results in ecological imbalance .
  • Dry ice (solid form of carbon dioxide) is used as refrigerant for ice creams and frozen food.
  • Gaseous carbon dioxide is used in carbonated soft drinks.
  • Carbon dioxide is used in fire extinguisher as it is non supporter of combustion.

Silicon dioxide (SiO2)

About 95% of earth crust is made up of silica and silicates .Silicon dioxide is commonly called as silica and it occurs in different forms :

Crystalline form of silica

  • Quartz
  • Cristobalite
  • Tridymite

These forms are inter-convertible at suitable temperature.

Structure of Silicon dioxide

The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
The p Block Elements
The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
  • This silicon tetra fluoride can easily dissolves in HF to form H2SiF(hydro-Fluoro-silicic acid ).
  • Due to formation of this compound, the SiO2 present in glass gets dissolved. That is the reason the hydrogen fluoride can’t be stored in glass bottles, instead it is stored in containers made of Cu, Ni+ traces of Fe alloy .
  • Quartz is used as piezoelectric material.

Uses

  • Silicon dioxide is used as catalyst in petroleum industry.
  • When (NH4)2CoCl4 is added to silica gel , it act as a humidity detector .Since ,it is blue when dry but turns pink when hydrated .

Silicones

  • They are synthetic organo-silicon compounds containing repeated R2SiO units held by Si-O-Si linkages.
  • These compounds have the general formula (R2SiO)n where R is methyl or aryl group .

Preparation  

  • The methyl chloride reacts with Silicon in presence of Copper at temperature 573k.
  • As a result, we get different types of methyl substituted cholrosilane of formulas :MeSiCl3, MeSiCl2, Me3SiCl and also Me4

CH3Cl + Si –> (CH3)2SiCl2

methyl chloride          dichloromethylsilane

                      (CH3)2SiCl2   + H2O –> (CH3)2Si(OH)2

                                       Dichloromethylsilane

  • If we carry out hydrolysis of dichlorodi-methylsilane followed by polymerization we get , straight chain polymers

 Properties

  • Silicones with :
  • Short chains – oily liquids
  • Medium chain- viscous oils, jellies and greases
  • Long chains – rubbery elastomers and resins .
  • They are chemically inert, resistant to oxidation and thermal decomposition.
  • Silicones are surrounded with non polar alkyl group that are water repelling in nature.
  • They are heat resistant and possess high dielectric constant.

Uses

  • They are used in making water proof papers, wool ,textile, wood  etc by coating them with thin film of silicones.
  • They are used as electric insulators.
  • They are used as lubricants at high as well as at low temperature , as there is very little change in their viscosity with temperature.
  • They are used in surgical implants.
The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
The p Block Elements

Zeolites

  • They are widely used as catalyst in petrochemical industries for cracking of hydrocarbons.
  • In them basically the Silicon atoms in three dimensional structures is replaced by Aluminum ions.
  • As a result, the overall structure carries the negative charge .
  • To balance this negative charge some cations like sodium ion etc are added in the structure.

   For example:

  1. ZSM-5 a type of zeolite converts alcohols directly to gasoline.
  2. Hydrated zeolite is used as permutit in ion exchange method for softening of hard water.

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