All living beings need food.
Food is needed by all living beings for four main purposes:
- for their growth.
- to provide energy for doing work.
- for the repair and replacement of the damaged tissues.
- to provide resistance and protection against diseases from infections.
If a person does not get food, she/he feels weak and is likely to fall ill.
Different people have different choices of food.
There is a wide range of food items eaten across various states of India. Different organisms eat different kinds of food.
Human beings are omnivores.
Our food comes from different sources. We get food from plants as well as animals.
We eat animals (as meat) as well as their different products like milk, eggs and honey.
Cooked food can be easily consumed and absorbed by our body. Cooking also kills the harmful germs.]
We should have sprouted seeds every day. Sprouted seeds are rich in nutrients.
Domesticated animals are classified as meat yielding, milk yielding and drought animals.
Ingredients: Materials needed to prepare a dish or food are called its ingredients.
Edible parts: Those parts (of a plant) which are eatable are called Edible parts
Nectar: Sweet juices found in flowers are known as nectar.
Sprouted seeds: Seeds which grow white thread like structures when soaked in water are called sprouted seeds.
Herbivore: Animals which eat plants and plant products like fruits, flowers, seeds, nectar, etc., are called herbivores.
Carnivore: Animals which eat other animals are called carnivores. Omnivore: Animals which eat both plants and their products, as well as other animals, are called omnivores.
Let us see what Mrs Iyer and Mrs Kapoor have prepared. Have they prepared the same kind of food? List out the six food items that you see on their table.
- Need for food
- Food from plants
- Food from animals
- What do animals eat
We get all these food from both plants and animals. Thus, plant parts and animal products are our sources of food.
- chicken curry
- Fish curry
Food From Plants:
Green plants are known as producers because they prepare their own food. They use light, air (carbon dioxide), water, and chlorophyll (present in their leaves) to prepare their food by the process of photosynthesis.
Different plant parts serve as sources of food for us. Fruits, vegetables, cereals, and pulses that we eat are obtained from different parts of a plant.
Roots of plants like carrot, radish, turnip, sweet potato, and beetroot are eaten (Fig. 1.1).
Stems of certain plants are eaten. For example, the stem of sugarcane plant is eaten and is also used to make sugar. The stem and flower of the banana plant is cooked and eaten in different parts of India. Certain plants have underground stems that we eat. Examples are potato, onion, garlic, and ginger (Fig. 1.2).
Leaves of plants like lettuce, spinach, cabbage, coriander, mint, and basil are eaten (Fig. 1.3).
Flowers of certain plants like cauliflower, broccoli, and banana are also eaten (Fig. 1.4).
Seeds Pulses like mung bean, kidney bean, chickpea, and cereals (wheat, maize, and rice) that we eat are seeds of plants (Fig. 1.5).
Wheat grains are ground to make flour (atta) which is used to make chapattis. Cumin seeds, pepper, and cardamom that we eat as spices are also seeds of different plants.
Sprouted seeds (or sprouts) of mung bean and chickpea (Bengal gram) are very nutritious. Sprouting involves soaking seeds and draining the water and then leaving them till they germinate. Sprouts can be eaten raw as salads or cooked.
Fruits and vegetables Plants also provide us fruits and vegetables (Fig. 1.6).
Like different plant parts, animal too serve as sources of food. Let us learn about the main food products obtained from animals.
Food From Animal:
Animal products like meat, egg, honey, milk, cheese, butter, and curd are eaten by human beings.
Meat of animals like goat, chicken, fish, and prawns is commonly eaten (Fig. 1.7).
Egg Hen’s egg is the most common bird egg eaten in the world. It is a rich source of proteins and vitamins. Some people also eat eggs of goose and duck.
Honey: Honey is a sweet liquid made by bees from the nectar of flowers (Fig. 1.8).
Honey is collected from beehives. It is used in cooking and also has medicinal value.
Milk: Milk is obtained from animals like cow, buffalo, and goat. Fig’1-8 Honev It is a very nutritious food item and is a rich source of proteins. Milk also contains calcium, which is required for proper bone growth and nerve function (Fig. 1.9).
Products made from milk are known as dairy products. Some common dairy products are discussed below.
Paneer (cottage cheese): Common methods of making paneer include adding lemon juice or vinegar to milk. Then, the liquid portion of milk is drained off and the solid part forms paneer. This process is called curdling.
Cheese: Cheese is made from curdled milk of cow, goat, sheep, or buffalo (Fig. 1.10).
Cream: Cream is made by collecting the top fatty layer of the milk.
Butter: Butter is made by churning fresh cream.
Ghee: Ghee is made by gently heating butter and removing the solid matter.
Curd Common methods of making curd include adding a small sample of curd in warm milk. The microorganisms (bacteria) present in the curd sample turn the milk into curd.
Unlike green plants, animals cannot make their own food. They depend on plants and other animals for food.
People living in deserts also drink camel’s milk. In ice-cold places, people mostly have yak’s milk.
Microorganisms Tiny organisms that can be seen only with the help of a microscope
Write two examples for each of the following.
- Roots that we eat
- Stems that we eat
- Leaves that we eat
- Flowers that we eat
- Seeds that we eat
What Do Animals Eat:
Different animals have different feeding habits. Based on their feeding habits, animals can be divided into three groups: herbivores, carnivores, and omnivores.
Herbivorous animals (Fig. 1.11) or herbivores (herbi, plant; vore, eater) are those that eat only plants and plant products. Cow, deer, horse, giraffe, squirrel, and butterfly are examples of herbivores.
Special Characteristics of Herbivores
- Herbivores like cow, horse, and goat have wide, blunt teeth. Such teeth are suitable for pulling plants off the ground and grinding them.
- Herbivores like cow and camel have the ability to bring back previously swallowed food to the mouth for chewing it the second time. This helps them to absorb most of the nutrients from hard-to-digest food like grass.
- Squirrels have a pair of broad, sharp-edged front teeth (incisors) in each jaw They use these teeth to gnaw food items like nuts.
- Herbivores like butterfly and hummingbird do not need to worry about chewing their food. They have mouth-parts shaped like a straw to suck nectar from flowers.
Carnivorous animals (Fig. 1.12) or carnivores (carni, meat; vore, eater) are those that only eat the flesh of other animals. Lion, tiger, jackal, vulture, owl, eagle, snake, and spider are examples of carnivores.
Special Characteristics of Carnivores
- Carnivores like lion and tiger have sharp and pointed front teeth (canines). They also have sharp claws and powerful jaws which help them to tear flesh.
- Carnivorous birds like eagle have curved, pointed beaks that allow them to tear flesh.
- Carnivores like chameleon and frog have a long, sticky tongue that they use to catch insects.
- Carnivorous fish like shark has several small, sharp teeth that help them bite off chunks of flesh.
Omnivorous animals (Fig. 1.13) or omnivores (omni, all; vore, eater) are those that eat both plants and flesh of other animals. Bear, racoon, crow, and human beings are examples of omnivores.
Special Characteristics of Omnivores
- Omnivores like a bear and human beings have different types of teeth that help them to eat both plants and flesh of other animals.
- Omnivorous birds like crow have a sharp and pointed beak to help them eat a variety of food.
Scavengers and Decomposers
Instead of hunting live animals, some birds and animals eat the flesh of other animals that are already dead.
Vulture is one such bird. These animals or birds are called scavengers. Some other organisms feed on and destroy (or decompose) dead plants and animals. Fungi
and bacteria are examples of such organisms (Fig. Fjg 114 Fung.1.14).
These organisms are called decomposers. Together with scavengers, decomposers play a very important role in nature. Without these organisms, our planet would be covered with dead plants and animals.
Herbivore: An animal that eats only plants and plant products is called a herbivore.
Carnivore: An animal that eats only the flesh of other animals is called a carnivore.
Omnivore: An animal that eats both plants and flesh of other animals is called an omnivore.
Scavenger: An animal that eats only the flesh of animals that are already dead is called a scavenger.
Decomposer: An organism that feeds on and decomposes dead animals and plants is called a decomposer.
Different plant parts like root, stem, leaf, flower, and fruit serve as sources of food.
Animal products like meat, egg, honey, milk, curd, cheese, butter, and ghee are eaten by human beings.
Herbivores have wide blunt teeth that help them to grind and chew plants.
Carnivores have sharp teeth and claws that help them to tear flesh.