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### Class 7 Maths Chapter 5 – Lines and Angles

Exercise 5.1 Page: 101

1. Find the complement of each of the following angles:

(i)

Solution:-

Two angles are said to be complementary if the sum of their measures is 90o.

The given angle is 20o

Let the measure of its complement be xo.

Then,

= x + 20o = 90o

= x = 90o – 20o

= x = 70o

Hence, the complement of the given angle measures 70o.

(ii)

Solution:-

Two angles are said to be complementary if the sum of their measures is 90o.

The given angle is 63o

Let the measure of its complement be xo.

Then,

= x + 63o = 90o

= x = 90o – 63o

= x = 27o

Hence, the complement of the given angle measures 27o.

(iii)

Solution:-

Two angles are said to be complementary if the sum of their measures is 90o.

The given angle is 57o

Let the measure of its complement be xo.

Then,

= x + 57o = 90o

= x = 90o – 57o

= x = 33o

Hence, the complement of the given angle measures 33o.

2. Find the supplement of each of the following angles:

(i)

Solution:-

Two angles are said to be supplementary if the sum of their measures is 180o.

The given angle is 105o

Let the measure of its supplement be xo.

Then,

= x + 105o = 180o

= x = 180o – 105o

= x = 75o

Hence, the supplement of the given angle measures 75o.

(ii)

Solution:-

Two angles are said to be supplementary if the sum of their measures is 180o.

The given angle is 87o

Let the measure of its supplement be xo.

Then,

= x + 87o = 180o

= x = 180o – 87o

= x = 93o

Hence, the supplement of the given angle measures 93o.

(iii)

Solution:-

Two angles are said to be supplementary if the sum of their measures is 180o.

The given angle is 154o

Let the measure of its supplement be xo.

Then,

= x + 154o = 180o

= x = 180o – 154o

= x = 26o

Hence, the supplement of the given angle measures 93o.

3. Identify which of the following pairs of angles are complementary and which are supplementary.

(i) 65o, 115o

Solution:-

We have to find the sum of given angles to identify whether the angles are complementary or supplementary.

Then,

= 65o + 115o

= 180o

If the sum of two angle measures is 180o, then the two angles are said to be supplementary.

∴These angles are supplementary angles.

(ii) 63o, 27o

Solution:-

We have to find the sum of given angles to identify whether the angles are complementary or supplementary.

Then,

= 63o + 27o

= 90o

If the sum of two angle measures is 90o, then the two angles are said to be complementary.

∴These angles are complementary angles.

(iii) 112o, 68o

Solution:-

We have to find the sum of given angles to identify whether the angles are complementary or supplementary.

Then,

= 112o + 68o

= 180o

If the sum of two angle measures is 180o, then the two angles are said to be supplementary.

∴These angles are supplementary angles.

(iv) 130o, 50o

Solution:-

We have to find the sum of given angles to identify whether the angles are complementary or supplementary.

Then,

= 130o + 50o

= 180o

If the sum of two angle measures is 180o, then the two angles are said to be supplementary.

∴These angles are supplementary angles.

(v) 45o, 45o

Solution:-

We have to find the sum of given angles to identify whether the angles are complementary or supplementary.

Then,

= 45o + 45o

= 90o

If the sum of two angle measures is 90o, then the two angles are said to be complementary.

∴These angles are complementary angles.

(vi) 80o, 10o

Solution:-

We have to find the sum of given angles to identify whether the angles are complementary or supplementary.

Then,

= 80o + 10o

= 90o

If the sum of two angle measures is 90o, then the two angles are said to be complementary.

∴These angles are complementary angles.

4. Find the angles which is equal to its complement.

Solution:-

Let the measure of the required angle be xo.

We know that, sum of measures of complementary angle pair is 90o.

Then,

= x + x = 90o

= 2x = 90o

= x = 90/2

= x = 45o

Hence, the required angle measures is 45o.

5. Find the angles which is equal to its supplement.

Solution:-

Let the measure of the required angle be xo.

We know that, sum of measures of supplementary angle pair is 180o.

Then,

= x + x = 180o

= 2x = 180o

= x = 180/2

= x = 90o

Hence, the required angle measures is 90o.

6. In the given figure, ∠1 and ∠2 are supplementary angles. If ∠1 is decreased, what changes should take place in ∠2 so that both angles still remain supplementary.

Solution:-

From the question, it is given that,

∠1 and ∠2 are supplementary angles.

If ∠1 is decreased, then ∠2 must be increased by the same value. Hence, this angle pair remains supplementary.

7. Can two angles be supplementary if both of them are:

(i). Acute?

Solution:-

No. If two angles are acute, means less than 90o, the two angles cannot be supplementary. Because, their sum will be always less than 90o.

(ii). Obtuse?

Solution:-

No. If two angles are obtuse, means more than 90o, the two angles cannot be supplementary. Because, their sum will be always more than 180o.

(iii). Right?

Solution:-

Yes. If two angles are right, means both measures 90o, then two angles can form a supplementary pair.

∴90+ 90o = 180

8. An angle is greater than 45o. Is its complementary angle greater than 45o or equal to 45o or less than 45o?

Solution:-

Let us assume the complementary angles be p and q,

We know that, sum of measures of complementary angle pair is 90o.

Then,

= p + q = 90o

It is given in the question that p > 45o

Adding q on both the sides,

= p + q > 45+ q

= 90o > 45+ q

= 90o – 45o > q

= q < 45o

Hence, its complementary angle is less than 45o.

(i) Is ∠1 adjacent to ∠2?

Solution:-

By observing the figure we came to conclude that,

Yes, as ∠1 and ∠2 having a common vertex i.e. O and a common arm OC.

Their non-common arms OA and OE are on both the side of common arm.

(ii) Is ∠AOC adjacent to ∠AOE?

Solution:-

By observing the figure, we came to conclude that,

No, since they are having a common vertex O and common arm OA.

But, they have no non-common arms on both the side of the common arm.

(iii) Do ∠COE and ∠EOD form a linear pair?

Solution:-

By observing the figure, we came to conclude that,

Yes, as ∠COE and ∠EOD having a common vertex i.e. O and a common arm OE.

Their non-common arms OC and OD are on both the side of common arm.

(iv) Are ∠BOD and ∠DOA supplementary?

Solution:-

By observing the figure, we came to conclude that,

Yes, as ∠BOD and ∠DOA having a common vertex i.e. O and a common arm OE.

Their non-common arms OA and OB are opposite to each other.

(v) Is ∠1 vertically opposite to ∠4?

Solution:-

Yes, ∠1 and ∠2 are formed by the intersection of two straight lines AB and CD.

(vi) What is the vertically opposite angle of ∠5?

Solution:-

∠COB is the vertically opposite angle of ∠5. Because these two angles are formed by the intersection of two straight lines AB and CD.

10. Indicate which pairs of angles are:

(i) Vertically opposite angles.

Solution:-

By observing the figure we can say that,

∠1 and ∠4, ∠5 and ∠2 + ∠3 are vertically opposite angles. Because these two angles are formed by the intersection of two straight lines.

(ii) Linear pairs.

Solution:-

By observing the figure we can say that,

∠1 and ∠5, ∠5 and ∠4 as these are having a common vertex and also having non common arms opposite to each other.

11. In the following figure, is ∠1 adjacent to ∠2? Give reasons.

Solution:-

∠1 and ∠2 are not adjacent angles. Because, they are not lie on the same vertex.

12. Find the values of the angles x, y, and z in each of the following:

(i)

Solution:-

∠x = 55o, because vertically opposite angles.

∠x + ∠y = 180o … [∵ linear pair]

= 55o + ∠y = 180o

= ∠y = 180o – 55o

= ∠y = 125o

Then, ∠y = ∠z … [∵ vertically opposite angles]

∴ ∠z = 125o

(ii)

Solution:-

∠z = 40o, because vertically opposite angles.

∠y + ∠z = 180o … [∵ linear pair]

= ∠y + 40o = 180o

= ∠y = 180o – 40o

= ∠y = 140o

Then, 40 + ∠x + 25 = 180o … [∵angles on straight line]

65 + ∠x = 180o

∠x = 180o – 65

∴ ∠x = 115o

13. Fill in the blanks:

(i) If two angles are complementary, then the sum of their measures is _______.

Solution:-

If two angles are complementary, then the sum of their measures is 90o.

(ii) If two angles are supplementary, then the sum of their measures is ______.

Solution:-

If two angles are supplementary, then the sum of their measures is 180o.

(iii) Two angles forming a linear pair are _______________.

Solution:-

Two angles forming a linear pair are Supplementary.

(iv) If two adjacent angles are supplementary, they form a ___________.

Solution:-

If two adjacent angles are supplementary, they form a linear pair.

(v) If two lines intersect at a point, then the vertically opposite angles are always

_____________.

Solution:-

If two lines intersect at a point, then the vertically opposite angles are always equal.

(vi) If two lines intersect at a point, and if one pair of vertically opposite angles are acute angles, then the other pair of vertically opposite angles are __________.

Solution:-

If two lines intersect at a point, and if one pair of vertically opposite angles are acute angles, then the other pair of vertically opposite angles are Obtuse angles.

14. In the adjoining figure, name the following pairs of angles.

(i) Obtuse vertically opposite angles

Solution:-

∠AOD and ∠BOC are obtuse vertically opposite angles in the given figure.

Solution:-

∠EOA and ∠AOB are adjacent complementary angles in the given figure.

(iii) Equal supplementary angles

Solution:-

∠EOB and EOD are the equal supplementary angles in the given figure.

(iv) Unequal supplementary angles

Solution:-

∠EOA and ∠EOC are the unequal supplementary angles in the given figure.

(v) Adjacent angles that do not form a linear pair

Solution:-

∠AOB and ∠AOE, ∠AOE and ∠EOD, ∠EOD and ∠COD are the adjacent angles that do not form a linear pair in the given figure.