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Class 7th Math
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Online Class For 7th Standard Students (CBSE)
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Q.1.Classify the changes involved in the following processes as physical or chemical changes:
(a) Photosynthesis
(b) Dissolving sugar in water
(c) Burning of coal
(d) Melting of wax
(e) Beating aluminium to make aluminium foil
(f) Digestion of food

Ans.(a) Chemical change (b) Physical change
(c) Chemical change (d) Physical change
(e) Physical change (/) Chemical change

Q.2.(a) Cutting a log of wood into pieces is a chemical change. (True/ False)
(b) Formation of manure from leaves is a physical change. (True/ False)
(c)Iron pipes coated with zinc do not get rusted easily. (True/ False)
(d)Iron and rust are the same substances. (True/ False)
(e)Condensation of steam is not a chemical change. (True/ False)
Ans. (a)False
Correct statement: Cutting a log of wood into pieces is an irreversible physical change.
(b)False
Correct statement: Formation of manure from leaves is a chemical change.
(c) True
(d)False
Correct statement: Iron and rust are two different chemical substances.
(e)True

Q.3.Fill in the blanks in the following statements:
(a) When carbon dioxide is passed through lime water, it turns milky due to the formation of .
(b) The chemical name of baking soda is .
(c) Two methods by which rusting of iron can be prevented are __________ and __________
(d) Changes in which only ____________ properties of a substance change are called physical changes.
(e) Changes in which new substances are formed are called _____________ changes..
Ans. (a)calcium carbonate
(b) sodium hydrogen carbonate
(c) painting or greasing, galvanisation
(d) physical
(e) chemical

Q.4. When baking soda is mixed with lemon juice, bubbles are formed with the evolution of a gas. What type of change is it? Explain.
Ans. The reaction between baking soda and lemon juice can be given as below:
Lemon juice + Baking soda ————-> C02 (bubbles) + Other substances
(Citric acid)                                    (Sodium hydrogen carbonate)  (Carbon dioxide)

It is a chemical change

Q.5. When a candle burns, both physical and chemical changes take place. Identify these changes. Give another example of a familiar process in which both the chemical and physical changes take place.
Ans. When a candle burns, both physical and chemical changes occur:
(i) Physical change: melting of wax, vapourisation of melted wax.
(ii) Chemical change: Burning of vapours of wax to give carbon dioxide, heat and light.
LPG is another example in which physical change occurs when LPG comes out of cylinder and is converted from liquid to gaseous state and a chemical change occurs when gas burns in air.

Q.6. How would you show that setting of a curd is a chemical change?
Ans. We can say that setting of curd is a chemical change because we can not get the original substance, i.e., milk back and a new substance is formed with different taste, smell and other chemical properties

Q.7. Explain why burning of wood and cutting it into small pieces are considered as two different types of changes. ~
Ans. Burning of wood is a chemical change because in burning new substances are formed as
Wood + Oxygen ———–> Charcoal + Carbon dioxide + Heat + Light
But cutting it into small pieces is physical change because no new substance is formed. We can only reduce the size of wood.

Q.8. Describe how crystals of copper sulphate are prepared.
Ans. Take a cupful of water in a beaker and add a few drops of dilute sulphuric acid. Heat the water. When it starts boiling, add copper sulphate powder slowly. Continue to add copper sulphate powder till no more powder can be dissolved. .During this process continuously stir the solution. Filter the solution. Leave it for cooling. Look it after some time, you can see the crystals of copper sulphate

Q.9. Explain how painting of an iron gate prevents it from rusting?
Ans. It is known that for rusting the presence of oxygen and moisture is essential. Painting prevents the iron gate from coming in contact with oxygen and moisture.

Q.10. Explain why rusting of iron objects is faster in coastal areas than in deserts.
Ans. As content of moisture in the air in coastal areas is higher than in the air in deserts. So, the process of rusting is faster in coastal areas.

Q.11. The gas we use in the kitchen is called liquified petroleum gas (LPG). In the cylinder it exists as a liquid. When it comes out from the cylinder it becomes a gas (Change- A) then it bums (Change-B). The following statements pertain to these changes. Choose the correct one.
(i) Process-A is a chemical change.
(ii) Process-B is a chemical change.
(iii) Both processes A and B are chemical changes.
(iv) None of these processes is a chemical change.
Ans. (ii) Process-B is a chemical change.

Q.12.Anaerobic bacteria digest animal waste and produce biogas (Change-A). The biogas is then burnt as fuel (Change-B). The following statements pertain to these changes. Choose the correct one.
(i) Process-A is a chemical change.
(ii) Process-B is a chemical change.
(iii) Both processes A and B are chemical changes.
(iv) None of these processes is a chemical change.
Ans.(iii) Both processes A and B are chemical change

Physical and Chemical Changes Class 7 Extra Questions Science Chapter 6

Physical and Chemical Changes Class 7 Science Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What kind of change is shown by tearing of paper? [NCERT Exemplar]
Answer:
Tearing of paper is a physical change although, it cannot be reversed.

Question 2.
Melting of wax is a change where a solid changes to liquid state. Give one more such change which you observe in your surroundings. [NCERT Exemplar; HOTS]
Answer:
Melting of ice is also a change where solid changes into liquid state.

Question 3.
Name the gas which turns lime water milky.
Answer:
Carbon dioxide gas (CO2) turns lime water milky.

Question 4.
Give example of a physical change which occurs by the action of heat.
Answer:
Melting of ice to form water is a physical change which occurs by the action of heat.

Question 5.
Write the colour of copper sulphate solution obtained when iron nails are dipped in it?
Answer:
When iron nails are dipped in copper sulphate solution, then the colour of the solution changes to green.

Question 6.
What colour of flame is observed when magnesium ribbon burnt in air.
Answer:
When magnesium is burnt in air then a brilliant white flame is obtained.

Question 7.
How can you say that ripening of a fruit is a chemical change? [HOTS]
Answer:
Ripening of a fruit is a chemical change because after ripening, a new product with different properties is formed.

Question 8.
Is souring of milk a physical change or a chemical change? Why?
Answer:
Souring of milk is a chemical change because original substances present in milk lose their nature and identity and form new chemical substances.

Question 9.
Complete the following reaction
Ca (OH)2 + CO2 → [HOTS]
Answer:

Question 10.
What is the nature of magnesium oxide solution?
Answer:
Magnesium oxide is basic in nature because it turns red litmus solution to blue.

Question 11.
Name the process by which common salt is obtained from sea water.
Answer:
The common salt can be obtained by the evaporation of sea water.

Question 12.
Name the metal which is used for galvanising iron.
Answer:
Zinc metal is used for galvanising iron.

Question 13.
Name the metals which are mixed (alloyed) with iron to make stainless steel.
Answer:
Metals like chromium and nickel are mixed (alloyed) with iron to make stainless steel.

Question 14.
Suggest two methods to prevent rusting.
Answer:
The two methods to prevent rusting are

  • Painting the iron articles.
  • Greasing or oiling the iron articles.

Question 15.
We should eat freshly cut apple. Why?
Answer:
We should eat freshly cut apple because if we leave the apple after cutting, it starts turn to brownish due to the oxidation of the essential nutrients present in it and its food value decreases.

Question 16.
Write word equations for two chemical reactions with the help of materials given in the box.

Air, copper sulphate, iron, vinegar, iron oxide, carbon, dioxide, iron sulphate, copper, lime water, water

Answer:
(i) Iron + air + water → iron oxide
(ii) Copper sulphate + iron → iron sulphate + copper

Physical and Chemical Changes Class 7 Science Extra Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Classify the following processes into physical or chemical changes. [NCERT Exemplar]
(a) Beating of aluminium metal to make aluminium foil
(b) Digestion of food
(c) Cutting of a log of wood into pieces
(d) Burning of crackers
Answer:
Physical changes are beating of aluminium metal to make aluminium foil and cutting of a log of wood into pieces.
Chemical changes are digestion of food and burning of crackers.

Question 2.
Explain the following.
(a) Lime water turns milky on passing carbon dioxide gas through it.
(b) Bubbles are produced when acetic acid is added to a solution of sodium hydrogen carbonate. [NCERT Exemplar]
Answer:
(a) Carbon dioxide gas produced in the reaction passing through freshly prepared lime water as shown in figure.

Lime water is calcium hydroxide solution. When carbon dioxide gas is passed through lime water, then calcium hydroxide combines with carbon dioxide to form a white solid substance, calcium carbonate which makes lime water milky. This chemical change can be written in the form of word equation as follows:

The reaction between lime water and carbon dioxide gas is a chemical change because a new substance calcium carbonate is formed during this change. The turning of lime water into milky is a standard test of carbon dioxide.
(b) When baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate) and vinegar (acetic acid) are mixed together, then a chemical change takes place between sodium hydrogen carbonate and acetic acid to form three new substances.
The change in the test tube is as follows:

Question 3.
Is cloud formation a physical change or chemical change? Explain.
Answer:
Formation of clouds is a physical change. Clouds are formed by the condensation of water vapours present in the atmosphere. When rainwater goes back on the earth, no new product is formed. Therefore, it is a physical change.

Question 4.
Write the differences between physical and chemical changes.
Answer:
Differences between physical and chemical changes are

Physical change Chemical change
No new substance is formed. New substance is formed.
It is a temporary change. It is a permanent change.
Physical change is easily reversible. Chemical change is irreversible.
Very little energy (heat, etc) is absorbed or given out in a physical change. A lot of energy (in the form of heat, light, sound etc) is absorbed or given out in a chemical change.

Question 5.
In addition to the formation of new products, what changes do the chemical changes accompany?
Answer:
In addition to new products, the following may accompany a chemical change:

  • Heat, light or any other radiation (e.g. ultraviolet) may be given off or absorbed.
  • Sound may be produced.
  • A change in smell may take place or a new smell may be given off.
  • A colour change may take place.
  • A gas may be formed.

Question 6.
Magnesium ribbon bums in air and changes to white substance, i.e. magnesium oxide. When magnesium oxide dissolves in water, what type of change take place? Give reason in support of your answer. Express the change in the form of equation. [HOTS]
Answer:
Mixing of ash obtained by the burning of magnesium with water is a chemical change. When magnesium is burnt in air, it forms magnesium oxide in the form of white ash.
Magnesium (Mg)+ Oxygen (O2) → Magnesium oxide (MgO)
When magnesium oxide dissolves in water, it forms a new substance, magnesium hydroxide.
Magnesium oxide (MgO) + Water (H2O) → Magnesium hydroxide Mg(OH)2
So, it is a chemical change.

Question 7.
What is stainless steel? How is stainless steel made? State an important property of stainless steel.
Answer:
Stainless steel is an alloy of iron. When iron is mixed (or alloyed) with carbon, chromium and nickel, then stainless steel is obtained. Stainless steel does not rust at all.

Question 8.
Plants prepare their food by a process called photosynthesis. Can we call photosynthesis is a chemical change? Explain. [HOTS]
Answer:
During photosynthesis, the plants intake carbon dioxide and water in the presence of chlorophyll and sunlight to form two new substances, i.e. glucose (food) and oxygen gas. So, photosynthesis is a chemical change.

Question 9.
The process of digestion is a chemical change. Explain why.
Answer:
In the process of digestion, the various food materials break down to form new substances which can be absorbed by the body. So, the process of digestion is a chemical change.

Question 10.
How ozone layer acts as a protective shield?
Answer:
The ozone layer protects us from the harmful ultraviolet radiations which come from the sun. Ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiations coming from the sun and breaks down to form oxygen.
In this way, ozone layer absorbs harmful ultraviolet radiations.

Question 11.
Which type of change takes place in the following and state whether the energy is evolved or absorbed during the change?
Burning of a candle, lightning of a bulb, preparation of food by green plants, volcanic eruption, evaporation of petrol, burning of LPG.
Answer:

  • Burning of a candle Chemical change as well as physical change and energy evolved.
  • Lightning of a bulb Physical change, energy evolved.
  • Preparation of food by green plants Chemical change, energy absorbed.
  • Volcanic eruption Chemical change, energy evolved.
  • Evaporation of petrol Physical change as no new chemical substance is formed, energy absorbed.
  • Burning of LPG Chemical change because LPG on burning form CO2 and H2O,energy absorbed.

Question 12.
Give twaexamples for each of the following cases:
(a) Physical changes which are reversible.
(b) Physical changes which are not reversible.
(c) Chemical changes iNCERTExxmptar]
Answer:
(a)

  • Folding of paper
  • Melting of ice

(b)

  • Tearing of paper
  • Breaking of glass

(c)

  • Reaction between vinegar and baking soda.
  • Burning of a matchstick.

Question 13.
Explosion of a cracker is a chemical change Explain.
Answer:
When we burn a cracker, it explode Explosion produces heat, light, sound and unpleasant gases that pollute the atmosphere.
Many new products are formed. So, it is a chemical change.

Question 14.
Why cannot a chemical change be normally reversed?
Answer:
In a chemical change, the products are quite different from the reactants. Therefore, a chemical change cannot be normally reversed.

Question 15.
A student took a solution of copper sulphate in a beaker and put a clean iron nail into it and left it for about an hour.
(a) What changes do you expect?
(b) Are these changes chemical in nature?
(c) Write a word equation for the chemical change, if any. (NCERT Examplar]
Answer:
(a)

  • Colour of the solution in the beaker changes from blue to green.
  • A brown coloured deposit is found on the surface of the iron nail.

(b) The changes are chemical in nature as new substances, iron sulphate (green) and copper (brown) are formed.

Question 16.
Describe two changes that are harmful. Explain why you consider them harmful? How can you prevent them?
Answer:
Harmful changes are

  • Rusting of iron.
  • Decaying of fruits.

Rusting of iron is harmful because it slowly destroys iron articles and makes them useless. Since, iron is used in making large number of objects or articles such as bridges, grills, railings, gates and bodies of cars, buses, trucks and ships, etc. Rusting of iron causes a great loss over a period of time.
Prevention Rusting can be prevented by oiling, greasing or painting. It can also be prevented by galvanisation.
Decaying of fruits causes health hazards. Due to decaying of fruits, there is a lot of monetary loss in food industry.
Prevention Fruits can be preserved by keeping them at low temperature and by using some specific preservatives.

Question 17.
What happens when an iron blade of a knife is dipped in a copper sulphate solution? What kind of change takes place? (HOTS]
Answer:
When an iron blade of a knife is dipped in a copper sulphate solution, then iron blade is coated with reddish brown deposits of copper.
And the blue colour of copper sulphate solution changes to light green due to the formation of iron sulphate. So, it is a chemical change.

Physical and Chemical Changes Class 7 Science Extra Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Give an example of a chemical reaction for each of the following situations: [NCERT Exemplar]
(a) A change in colour is observed.
(b) A gas is evolved.
(c) Sound is produced.
Answer:
(a) Chemical reaction between copper sulphate solution and iron metal. In this reaction, blue colour of copper sulphate solution changes to light green colour due to the formation of iron sulphate.

(b) When baking soda and vinegar are mixed together then a chemical change takes place and bubbles of carbon dioxide gas are formed along with some other substances.

(c) Explosion of a firework produces heat, light, sound and unpleasant gases. Explosion of a firework is a chemical change.

Question 2.
Rahul was a student of Class VII. His father purchased a new bicycle for him on his birthday. After few months, he found that the cycle chain and even the handle gets rusted. His father advised him to apply a coating of paint to the cycle and not to keep it in the open in future.
Now, answer the following questions:
(a) Why his cycle gets rusted?
(b) What do you mean by rusting of iron?
(c) What values are shown by Rahul’s father? [Value Based Question]
Answer:
(a) Rahul’s cycle was kept in the open for a longer time. As air contains both oxygen and moisture. Thus, in the presence of oxygen and water, his cycle slowly gets rusted.
Iron(Fe) + Oxygen + Water →Rust (Iron oxide)
(b) If iron objects are left in humid conditions for a longer time, they get covered with reddish brown ferric oxide (Fe2O3) layer. This is called rusting of iron.
(c) Rahul’s father is caring, aware and intelligent.

Question 3.
In the summer holidays, Karan went to Rann of Kutch in Gujarat with his parents. Karan was aware that in the coastal regions of India especially in the Rann of Kutch common salt is obtained from sea water. Karan was very excited to see that place. He requested his father that he want to see the process of obtaining salt from sea. His father helped him and they went to see the place where common salt was collecting.
And he also explained the whole process. Karan was very happy to see the process.
Now, answer the following questions.
(a) How is common salt obtained from sea water?
(b) Name the process by which salt is collected from sea water.
(c) What values are shown by Karan? [Value Baaad Question]
Answer:
(a) Sea water is collected in shallow pits. It is then allowed to evaporate in the sun. As, the water evaporates, the salt solution becomes supersaturated (concentrated). This supersaturated solution cannot hold the excess salt. Thus, it separates out in the form of salt crystals. These salt crystals are collected and are redissolved in water and filtered to remove insoluble impurities. The clear solution is again evaporated to obtain the crystals of pure salt.
(b) Salt is obtained from sea water by the process of evaporation.
(c) The values shown by Karan are curious, aware and intelligence.

Question 4.
When baking soda is mixed with vinegar, bubbles are formed with the evolution of a gas. Name the gas evolved. What happens when this gas is passed through lime water? [HOTS]
Answer:
When baking soda (sodium hydrogen carbonate) and vinegar (acetic acid) are mixed together, then a chemical change takes place between sodium hydrogen carbonate and acetic acid to form three new substances.
The change in the test tube is as follows:

Carbon dioxide gas produced in the reaction passing through freshly prepared lime water as shown in figure.

Lime water is calcium hydroxide solution. When carbon dioxide gas is passed through lime water, then calcium hydroxide combines with carbon dioxide to form a white solid substance, calcium carbonate which makes lime water milky. This chemical change can be written in the form of word equation as follows:

The reaction between lime water and carbon dioxide gas is a chemical change because a new substance calcium carbonate is formed during this change. The turning of lime water into milky is a standard test of carbon dioxide.

When baking soda (NaHC03) reacts with vinegar which contains acitic acid carbon dioxide comes out, which turns lime water milky, therefore it is a chemical change. In all these activities, we saw that in each change, one or more new substances are formed. When magnesium ribbon was burnt, the ash was the new substance formed.

The reaction of copper sulphate with iron produced two new substances, i.e. iron sulphate and copper. Vinegar and baking soda together produced carbon dioxide which turned lime water milky. So, all those changes in which one or more new substances formed, are called chemical changes. These are permanent changes which can usually not be reversed to form the original substance.

Question 5.
If you leave a piece of iron in the open for a few days, it acquires a film of brownish substance, called rust.
(a) Do you think rust is different from iron?
(b) Can you change rust back into iron by some simple method?
(c) Do you think formation of rust on iron is a chemical change?
(d) Give two other examples of a similar type of change. [NCERT Exemplar]
Answer:
(a) Yes, rust is iron oxide (Fe2O3). Thus, rust and iron are not the same substance.
(b) No, rusting of iron is a chemical change because in this reaction, a new substance, rust (iron oxide) is formed. It cannot be reversed by any method.
(c) Yes, rusting of iron is a chemical change. During the rusting of iron, it combines with the oxygen in the presence of water (moisture) to form a new compound ‘iron oxide’. This iron oxide is a rust.

It is a permanent change which cannot be reversed back.
So, rusting of iron is a chemical change.

(d) Two other examples are

  • Setting of curd from milk.
  • Burning of magnesium ribbon to form magnesium oxide.

Physical and Chemical Changes Class 7 Science Extra Questions Miscellaneous Questions

Multiple Choice Questions
Question 1.
Which of the following is a physical change? [NCERT Exemplar]
(a) Rusting of iron
(b) Combustion of magnesium ribbon
(c) Burning of candle
(d) Melting of wax
Answer:
(d) Melting of wax

Question 2.
Which one of the following is a chemical change? [NCERT Exemplar]
(a) Twinkling of stars
(b) Cooking of vegetables
(c) Cutting of fruits
(d) Boiling of water
Answer:
(b) Cooking of vegetables

Question 3.
A chemical change may involve
(a) change in colour only
(b) change in temperature only
(c) evolution of gas only
(d) All of the above
Answer:
(d) All of the above

Question 4.
Which of the following are true when milk changes into curd?
(i) Its state is changed from liquid to semi-solid.
(ii) It changes colour.
(iii) It changes taste.
(iv) The change cannot be reversed.
Choose the correct option.
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) (i), (iii) and (iv)
(d) (i) to (iv)
Answer:
(c) (i), (iii) and (iv)

Question 5.
A man painted his main gate made up of iron, to [NCERT Exemplar]
(i) prevent it from rusting.
(ii) protect it from the sun.
(iii) make it look beautiful.
(iv) make it dust free.
Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) (i) and (ii)
(b) (ii) and (iii)
(c) Only (ii)
(d) (i) and (iii)
Answer:
(d) (i) and (iii)

Question 6.
Iron pillar near the Qutub Minar in Delhi is famous for the following facts. Which of these facts is responsible for its long stability?
(a) It is more than 7 m high
(b) It weighs about 6000 kg
(c) It was built more than 1600 years ago
(d) It has not rusted after such a long period
Answer:
(d) It has not rusted after such a long period

Question 7.
Galvanisation is a process used to prevent the rusting of which of the following?
(a) Iron
(b) Zinc
(c) Aluminium
(d) Copper
Answer:
(a) Iron

Question 8.
Paheli’s mother made a concentrated sugar syrup by dissolving sugar in hot water. On cooling, crystals of sugar got separated.
This indicates a [NCERT Exemplar]
(a) physical change that can be reversed
(b) chemical change that can be reversed
(c) physical change that cannot be reversed
(d) chemical change that cannot be reversed
Answer:
(a) physical change that can be reversed

Question 9.
Which of the following statements is incorrect for a chemical reaction?
(a) Heat may be given out but never absorbed
(b) Sound may be produced
(c) A colour change may take place
(d) A gas may be evolved
Answer:
(a) Heat may be given out but never absorbed

Question 10.
Two drops of dilute sulphuric acid were added to 1 g of copper sulphate powder and then small amount of hot water was added to dissolve it (Step I). On cooling, beautiful blue coloured crystals got separated (Step II). Step I and Step II are
(a) physical and chemical changes respectively
(b) chemical and physical changes respectively
(c) both physical change
(d) both chemical change
Answer:
(c) both physical change

Fill in the Blanks
1. Making sugar solution is a ………………… change.
2. A physical change is generally ………………… . [NCERT Exemplar]
3. Grinding of wheat grain changes its size. It is a ………………… change.
4. Iron benches kept in lawns and gardens get ………………… . It is a ………………… change bacause a new ………………… is formed.
5. Some substances can be obtained in pure state from their solution by ………………… .
6. Energy is ………………… in the formation of curd from milk.
7. The presence of ………………… in sea water makes the process of rust formation on ships faster.
8. Souring of milk is a ………………… change.
9. Melting of wax is a ………………… change but burning of wax is a change.
10. The process of depositing a thin layer of zinc on iron object is called ………………… .
Answers:
1. physical .
2. reversible
3. physical
4. rusted, chemical, substance
5. crystallisation
6. evolved
7. salt
8. chemical
9. physical, chemical
10. galvanisation

True/False
1. When a candle bums, both physical and chemical changes take place. [NCERT Exemplar]
2. Anaerobic bacteria digest animal wastes and
3. Ships suffer a lot of damage though they are painted.
4. Stretching of rubber band is not a physical change. [NCERT Exemplar]
5. Cooking of rice is a physical change.
6. Within our bodies, food is digested due to chemical reaction.
7. A blue deposit is formed on an iron nail when dipped in copper sulphate solution.
8. Both moisture and air are essential for rusting.
9. Formation of clouds is a physical change.
10. The colour of iron sulphate solution is green.
Answers:
1. True
2. True
3. True
4. False
5. False
6. True
7. False
8. True
9. True
10. True

Match the Columns
Question 1.
Match the items of Column I with the items of Column II.

Column I Column II
(a) Large crystals (i) Turn lime water milky
(b) Depositing a layer of zinc on iron (ii) Physical change
(c) Souring of milk (iii) Rust
(d) Carbon dioxide (iv) Sugar candy (mishri)
(e) Iron oxide (v) Chemical change
(f) Dissolving common salt in water (vi) Galvanisation

Answers:
1.
(a)-(iv)
(b)-(vi)
(c)-(v)
(d)-(i)
(e)-(iii)
(f)-(ii)

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