Life in the Temperate Grasslands Class 7 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 9
Grassland is a region where grasses from the dominant type of plant life.
Depending upon the climate conditions, grasslands can be divided into two categories, the Temperate Grasslands and the Tropical Grasslands.
- Prairies are the Temperate Grassland found in North America. They are bound by the Rocky Mountains ‘ the West and the Great Lakes in the East.
- For the most part, Prairies are tree-less but, near the low-lying area’s woodlands can be found. The prairies are bound by the Rocky Mountains in the West and the Great Lakes in the East.
- Prairies cover major parts of the USA and Canada.
- Climate is of continental type with extreme temperature ie with warm summers and very cold winters.
- The annual rainfall is moderate and is ideal for the growth of grass.
Flora and Fauna
- Prairies are practically tree-less but the places where water is available, trees such as willows, alders and poplars grow.
- Places that receive rainfall of over 50 cm, are suitable for farming as the soil is fertile.
- The prairies are known as the ‘Granaries of the world’ because surplus wheat is produced here.
- Bison or American buffalo is the most important animal.
- Large-scale cattle farms called ranches are looked after by the sturdy men called cowboys.
- Large scale farming with modern technology is done here.
- The Temperate Grasslands of South Africa are called the velds.
- Velds are rolling plateaus with varying heights ranging from 600 m to 1100 m.
- It is bound by the Drakensberg Mountains on the east.
- The welds have a mild climate due to the influence of the Indian Oceans.
- Here the summers are short and warm.
- The velds receive rainfall mainly in the summer months from November to February.
- Winters are cold and dry. Temperature varies between 5°C and 10°C and July is the coldest month.
Flora and Fauna
- Vegetation cover is sparse.
- Red grass grows in bush velds.
- Velds are known for cattle rearing and mining.
- The main crops are maize, wheat, barley, oats and potatoes.
- The velds have a rich reserve of minerals.
- Iron and steel industry has developed where coal and iron are present.
- Johannesburg is known as the gold capital of the world.
Grassland is a region where grasses form the dominant type of plant life. Grasslands make up almost a quarter of the total land surface.
The world’s grasslands are divided into two categories: those that occur in the temperate region and those that occur in the tropical region.
The prairies are the temperate grasslands in North America. They are bound by the Rocky Mountains in the west and the Great Lakes in the East.
The prairies are located in the heart of the continent and therefore we find here the continental type of climate which is characterised by extreme temperatures.
The annual rainfall is moderate and is ideal for the growth of grass. ‘Chinook’, a local wind, blow here.
Trees are not there in the prairies. Only trees like willows, alders and poplars grow.
Crops like maize, potatoes, soybeans, cotton and alfa-alfa are grown in the areas where rainfall is over 50 cm.
In the areas with poor rainfall, grasses are short and sparse. In these areas, cattle¬rearing is done. Bison or the American buffalo is the most important animal of this region.
The people of this region are hardworking. The USA and Canada are located in this region.
The prairies are known as the ‘Granaries of the world’ because surplus wheat is produced here.
Dairy farming is also a major industry.
Minerals such as coal and iron are found in abundance. Roads, railways and canals— all are in good condition and play an important role in making this region the most industrialised one in the world.
The velds are the temperate grasslands of South Africa. They are bound by the Drakensberg Mountains on the east. To its west lies the Kalahari desert. On the northeastern part, high velds are located that attain a height of more than 1600 m in some places.
The velds are characterised by a mild climate. They receive rainfall mainly in the summer months from November to February.
The velds do not have much vegetation. Grasses dominate the landscape. The popular varieties of grass are—red grass, acacia and maroola.
The animals found in this region are—lions, leopards, cheetah and kudu.
Cattle rearing and mining are two important activities in the velds. Soils are not very fertile.
The main crops are maize, wheat, barley, oats and potato. Cash crops grown here are tobacco, sugarcane and cotton.
The people of this region are mostly engaged in sheep rearing.
Merino sheep are very popular because its wool is very warm.
Dairy farming is also an important activity Dairy product like butter, cheese is produced for both domestic supply and also for export.
The velds have a rich reserve of minerals. Gold and diamond mining are major occupations of people of this region.
Johannesburg is famous for gold. It is known as the gold capital in the world.
Kimberley is famous for its diamond mines.
Grassland: A region where grasses form the dominant type of plant life.
Prairie: The word prairie has been originated from Latin word priata which means meadow.
Red Indians: native Americans.
Chinook: It is a hot wind that blows in winter and therefore raises the temperature within a short time.
Ranches: They are large cattle farms.
Bison: The American buffalo.
Cowboys: The sturdy men who look after the ranches.
Combine: A single machine which can combine the tasks of sowing, ploughing and threshing, i.e., a three-in-one.
Veld: Velds are the temperate grasslands of South Africa.