Natural Vegetation and Wild Life Class 7 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 6
Natural vegetation means the plants that grow naturally without human interference.
Natural vegetation can be categorised into three categories namely; forest, grassland and desert.
The change in the type of natural vegetation occurs mainly because of the changes of climatic conditions.
- Forests grow where temperature and rainfall are plentiful to support a tree cover.
- Forests are of six types: Tropical Evergreen, Tropical Deciduous, Temperate Evergreen, Temperate Deciduous, Mediterranean Vegetation, and Coniferous forests.
- Tropical Evergreen Forests are those which occur in the region near the equator and close to the tropics.
- Tropical Deciduous Forests are monsoon forests which shed their leaves in the dry season to conserve water.
- Temperate Evergreen Forests are located in the mid-latitudinal coastal region.
- Temperate Deciduous Forests are those which shed their leaves in the dry season.
- Mediterranean Vegetation is found around the Mediterranean Sea in Europe.
- Coniferous Forests are found in areas along the Taiga.
- Grasslands are found in the regions of moderate rainfall. They are of two types—Tropical Grasslands, which have tall coarse grass, and Temperate Grasslands.
- Tropical Grasslands occurs on either side of the equator and extend till the tropics. Tropical Grassland of Africa is called Savannah.
- Temperate Grasslands are in mid-latitudes and are called prairies, steppes, etc. The grass is usually short here.
- Thorny bushes are found in the dry desert-like regions.
- These are found in areas with scanty rain and scorching heat.
- Mosses, lichens and very small Shrubs are found in cold regions. This is called tundra type vegetation.
- It is found in polar areas.
Trees, grass, lichen, mosses, etc. that grow naturally without human interference constitute natural vegetation.
The growth of natural vegetation depends on temperature and moisture. It also depends on factors such as slope and thickness of soil.
Natural vegetation is classified into three categories—forests, grasslands and shrubs.
The changes in the type of natural vegetation occur mainly because of the changes in climatic condition.
Forests grow where temperature and rainfall are plentiful to support a tree cover. Forests may be dense and open.
Tropical evergreen forests also known as tropical rainforests are very dense and are found in the regions near the equator and close to the tropics. Hardwood trees such as rosewood, ebony, mahogany are common here.
Tropical deciduous forests are monsoon forests. They are found in the large part of India, Northern Australia and in Central America. They shed their leaves in dry seasons. Trees like sal, teak, neem and shisham are found here.
Temperate evergreen forests are commonly found along the eastern margin of the continents. In these forests both hard and softwood trees such as oak, pine, eucalyptus, etc. are found.
Temperate deciduous forests are found in the northeastern part of USA, China, New Zealand and Chile. They shed their leaves in the dry season. Trees like oak, ash, beech etc. and animals like deer, foxes, wolves are common in these forests.
Mediterranean vegetation is mostly found in the areas around the Mediterranean sea in Europe, Africa and Asia. Mediterranean vegetation is mainly comprised of citrus fruits such as oranges, figs, olives and grapes.
Coniferous forests are also known as Traga. These forests are found in the higher latitudes of Northern hemisphere. They are also found in the higher altitudes. The trees are tall, softwood evergreen trees. Chir, pine, cedar is an important variety of trees in these forests. Animals such as silver fox, mink, polar bear are common here.
Grasslands include tropical and temperate grasslands. Tropical grasslands grow in the areas of moderate to low amount of rainfall. Savannah grasslands of Africa present a suitable example of these types of grasslands. Animals like elephants, zebras, giraffes, dear are commonly found here.
Temperate grasslands are found in the mid-latitudinal zones and in the interior part of the continents. Short and nutritious grass in found here. Common animals are buffaloes, bison, antelopes etc.
Thorny bushes are found in the dry deserts. Here, vegetation cover is scarce because of poor rain and scorching heat.
Polar regions are cold and their natural vegetation is limited here. Only mosses, lichens and very small shrubs are found here. Vegetation found in the polar regions is called Tundra type of vegetation. Seal, walruses, musk-oxen, Arctic owl etc. are common here.
Natural vegetation: Trees, grass, lichens, mosses, etc. that grow naturally without the interference of human beings are called natural vegetation.
Forests: They grow where temperature and rainfall are plentiful to support a tree cover. Forests may be dense and open.
Grasslands: They grow in the region of moderate rain.
Shrubs: These consists of thorny shrubs and scrubs.
Anaconda: It is one of the world’s largest snakes found in the tropical rainforest. Taiga. It means pure or untouched in the Russian language.