Course Content
Topic Name 10 Haloalkanes and Haloarenes 10.1 Classification 10.2 Nomenclature 10.3 Nature of C–X Bond 10.4 Methods of Preparation of Haloalkanes 10.5 Preparation of Haloarenes 10.6 Physical Properties 10.7 Chemical Reactions
Topic Name 11 Alcohols, Phenols and Ethers 11.1 Classification 11.2 Nomenclature 11.3 Structures of Functional Groups 11.4 Alcohols and Phenols 11.5 Some Commercially Important Alcohols 11.6 Ethers
Topic Name 13 Amines 13.1 Structure of Amines 13.2 Classification 13.3 Nomenclature 13.4 Preparation of Amines 13.5 Physical Properties 13.6 Chemical Reactions 13.7 Method of Preparation of Diazonium Salts 13.8 Physical Properties 13.9 Chemical Reactions 13.10 Importance of Diazonium Salts in Synthesis of Aromatic Compounds
Topic Name 14 Biomolecules 14.1 Carbohydrates 14.2 Proteins 14.3 Enzymes 14.4 Vitamins 14.5 Nucleic Acids 14.6 Hormones
Topic Name 15 Polymers 15.1 Classification of Polymers 15.2 Types of Polymerisation Reactions 15.3 Molecular Mass of Polymers 15.4 Biodegradable Polymers 15.5 Polymers of Commercial Importance
Topic Name 16 Chemistry in Everyday Life 16.1 Drugs and their Classification 16.2 Drug-Target Interaction 16.3 Therapeutic Action of Different Classes of Drugs 16.4 Chemicals in Food 16.5 Cleansing Agents
Class 12th Chemistry Online Class: Excelling in CBSE Board Exams
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Average rate of reaction

The average rate of the reaction is the ratio of change in concentration of reactants to the change in time. It is determined by the change in concentration of reactants or products and the time taken for the change as well. As the reaction precedes forward the collisions between the molecules of the participating reactants reduces thereby decreasing the average rate of the reaction.

Mathematically, Average rate of reaction = Change in concentration / Time = (mol/litre)/time

PROBLEM.   For the reaction R → P, the concentration of a reactant changes from 0.03 M to 0.02 M in 25 minutes. Calculate the average rate of reaction using units of time both in minutes and seconds.

SOLUTION.   R2= 0.02 M

R1= 0.03M

t– t1= 25 minutes

∆[R]/∆t =∆[R2-R1]/ t2– t1=- (0.02-0.03)/25 = 6.67 X 10-6 Ms-1

=0.005ML-1 min-1

PROBLEM.   In a reaction, 2A → Products, the concentration of A decreases from 0.5 mol L-1 to 0.4 mol L-1 in 10 minutes. Calculate the rate during this interval?

SOLUTION.   -1/2 (∆[A]/∆t) =-1/2(∆[A2-A1]/∆t) =-1/2 (0.4-0.5/10)

=0.005ML-1 min-1

= 5 X 10-3M min-1

Instantaneous rate of reaction

The ratio of change in concentration in chemical reaction  to the time period is termed as instantaneous rate of the reaction.

-d[R]/dt = change in chemical concentration over short period of time/ the short time elapsed = (mol/litre) / time

 It can be calculated from the slope of the tangent on a concentration- time graph.

For example, consider the following graph.

The rate of reaction at t = 40s in the above graph can be calculated by following method:

Chemical Kinetics

Rate of reaction = gradient of the tangent at 40s = (120-70)/(65-5) = 50/60= 0.83 cm3s-1

Rate expression

The representation of rate of reaction in terms of concentration of the reactants is called rate equation or rate expression.

For example, in the reaction

2NO(g) + O2(g) –> 2NO2

The rate expression is given as

Rate =k[NO]2[O2]

Let us consider another reaction

BrO3 + 5Br + 6H+ –> 3Br + 3 H2O

Rate expression for this reaction is given as

Order of a reaction

The addition of power of the concentration of reactant in a rate law expression gives the order of reaction.

Let A + 2B –> C + D be a chemical reaction.

From rate law R = k [A]x [B]y

Now Order of reaction is defined as addition of the order of all the reactants participating in a chemical reaction.

order w.r.t. A = x

Order w.r.t. B = y

Overall order of the given reaction = (x + y).

Units of order of reaction:

k = rate / [A]n = (mol.L-1s-1/molL-1n

For 1st order reaction , n=1

k = rate / [A]1 = (mol.L-1s-1/molL-11= s-1

For 2nd order reaction, n=2

k = rate / [A]2 = (mol.L-1s-1/molL-12= L.mol-1s-1

PROBLEM.   From the rate expression for the following reactions, determine their order of reaction and the dimensions of the rate constants.

(i) 3 NO(g) → N2O(g)  Rate = k[NO]2

(ii) H2O2 (aq) + 3 I – (aq) + 2 H+→ 2 H2O (l) +  I3  Rate = k[H2O2][I – ]

(iii) CH3CHO(g)  → CH4(g) + CO(g)  Rate = k [CH3CHO]3/2

(iv) C2H5Cl(g) → C2H4(g) + HCl(g)  Rate = k [C2H5Cl]

SOLUTION.   (i) Rate = k[NO]2

Order of the reaction = 2

Dimension of k = Rate / [NO]2

= mol L-1 s-1 / (mol L-1)2

= mol L-1 s-1 / mol2 L-2

= L mol-1 s-1

(ii) Rate = k[H2O2][I – ]

Order of the reaction = 2

Dimension of k = Rate  / [H2O2][I – ]

= mol L-1 s-1  / (mol L-1) (mol L-1)

= L mol-1 s-1

(iii) Rate =k [CH3CHO]3/2

Order of reaction = 3/2

Dimension of k = Rate / [CH3CHO]3/2

=  mol L-1 s-1   / (mol L-1)3/2

= mol L-1 s-1   / mol3/2  L-3/2

= L½ mol-½  s-1

(iv) Rate = k [C2H5Cl]

Order of the reaction = 1

Dimension of k = Rate /  [C2H5Cl]

= mol L-1 s-1   / mol L-1

= s-1

PROBLEM.   For a reaction, A + B → Product; the rate law is given by,  r  = k [A]½ [B]2. What is the order of the reaction?

SOLUTION.   The order of the reaction = 1/2 + 2

= 2 1/2

= 2.5

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