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### Exercise 2.4 Page: 36

1. Verify that the numbers given alongside of the cubic polynomials below are their zeroes. Also verify the relationship between the zeroes and the coefficients in each case:

(i) 2x3+x2-5x+2; -1/2, 1, -2

Solution:

Given, p(x) 2x3+x2-5x+2

And zeroes for p(x) are = 1/2, 1, -2

∴ p(1/2) = 2(1/2)3+(1/2)2-5(1/2)+2 = (1/4)+(1/4)-(5/2)+2 = 0

p(1) = 2(1)3+(1)2-5(1)+2 = 0

p(-2) = 2(-2)3+(-2)2-5(-2)+2 = 0

Hence, proved 1/2, 1, -2 are the zeroes of 2x3+x2-5x+2.

Now, comparing the given polynomial with general expression, we get;

∴ ax3+bx2+cx+d = 2x3+x2-5x+2

a=2, b=1, c= -5 and d = 2

As we know, if α, β, γ are the zeroes of the cubic polynomial ax3+bx2+cx+d , then;

α +β+γ = –b/a

αβ+βγ+γα = c/a

α βγ = – d/a.

Therefore, putting the values of zeroes of the polynomial,

α+β+γ = ½+1+(-2) = -1/2 = –b/a

αβ+βγ+γα = (1/2×1)+(1 ×-2)+(-2×1/2) = -5/2 = c/a

α β γ = ½×1×(-2) = -2/2 = -d/a

Hence, the relationship between the zeroes and the coefficients are satisfied.

(ii) x3-4x2+5x-2 ;2, 1, 1

Solution:

Given, p(x) = x3-4x2+5x-2

And zeroes for p(x) are 2,1,1.

∴ p(2)= 23-4(2)2+5(2)-2 = 0

p(1) = 13-(4×1)+(5×1)-2 = 0

Hence proved, 2, 1, 1 are the zeroes of x3-4x2+5x-2

Now, comparing the given polynomial with general expression, we get;

∴ ax3+bx2+cx+d = x3-4x2+5x-2

a = 1, b = -4, c = 5 and d = -2

As we know, if α, β, γ are the zeroes of the cubic polynomial ax3+bx2+cx+d , then;

α + β + γ = –b/a

αβ + βγ + γα = c/a

α β γ = – d/a.

Therefore, putting the values of zeroes of the polynomial,

α +β+γ = 2+1+1 = 4 = -(-4)/1 = –b/a

αβ+βγ+γα = 2×1+1×1+1×2 = 5 = 5/1= c/a

αβγ = 2×1×1 = 2 = -(-2)/1 = -d/a

Hence, the relationship between the zeroes and the coefficients are satisfied.

2. Find a cubic polynomial with the sum, sum of the product of its zeroes taken two at a time, and the product of its zeroes as 2, –7, –14 respectively.

Solution:

Let us consider the cubic polynomial is ax3+bx2+cx+d and the values of the zeroes of the polynomials be α, β, γ.

As per the given question,

α+β+γ = -b/a = 2/1

αβ +βγ+γα = c/a = -7/1

α βγ = -d/a = -14/1

Thus, from above three expressions we get the values of coefficient of polynomial.

a = 1, b = -2, c = -7, d = 14

Hence, the cubic polynomial is x3-2x2-7x+14

3. If the zeroes of the polynomial x3-3x2+x+1 are a – b, a, a + b, find a and b.

Solution:

We are given with the polynomial here,

p(x) = x3-3x2+x+1

And zeroes are given as a – b, a, a + b

Now, comparing the given polynomial with general expression, we get;

∴px3+qx2+rx+s = x3-3x2+x+1

p = 1, q = -3, r = 1 and s = 1

Sum of zeroes = a – b + a + a + b

-q/p = 3a

Putting the values q and p.

-(-3)/1 = 3a

a=1

Thus, the zeroes are 1-b, 1, 1+b.

Now, product of zeroes = 1(1-b)(1+b)

-s/p = 1-b2

-1/1 = 1-b2

b2 = 1+1 = 2

b = √2

Hence,1-√2, 1 ,1+√2 are the zeroes of x3-3x2+x+1.

4. If two zeroes of the polynomial x4-6x3-26x2+138x-35 are 2 ±3, find other zeroes.

Solution:

Since this is a polynomial equation of degree 4, hence there will be total 4 roots.

Let f(x) = x4-6x3-26x2+138x-35

Since 2 +√and 2-√are zeroes of given polynomial f(x).

∴ [x−(2+√3)] [x−(2-√3)] = 0

(x−2−√3)(x−2+√3) = 0

On multiplying the above equation we get,

x2-4x+1, this is a factor of a given polynomial f(x).

Now, if we will divide f(x) by g(x), the quotient will also be a factor of f(x) and the remainder will be 0.

So, x4-6x3-26x2+138x-35 = (x2-4x+1)(x2 –2x−35)

Now, on further factorizing (x2–2x−35) we get,

x2–(7−5)x −35 = x2– 7x+5x+35 = 0

x(x −7)+5(x−7) = 0

(x+5)(x−7) = 0

So, its zeroes are given by:

x= −5 and x = 7.

Therefore, all four zeroes of given polynomial equation are: 2+√3 , 2-√3−5 and 7.