Write a note on Guiseppe Mazzini.
- Giuseppe Mazzini (1807-1872) was an Italian politician, journalist and activist for the unification of Italy and spearheaded the Italian revolutionary movement. His efforts helped bring about the independent and unified Italy in place of several separate states, many dominated by foreign powers.
- He also helped define the modern European movement for popular democracy in a republican state.
- Mazzini was a fervent advocate of republicanism and envisioned a united, free and independent Italy.
- Unlike his contemporary Garibaldi, who was also a republican, Mazzini never compromised his republican ideas and refused to swear an oath of allegiance to the House of Savoy.
- Mazzini was the spiritual force of the Italian resurrection. He joined the Carbonari, a revolutionary organisation and was arrested in 1830. He was sent into exile in 1831 for attempting a revolution in Liguria. He subsequently founded two more underground societies, first – Young Italy in Marseilles and then Young Europe in Berne, whose members were like- minded young men from Poland, France, Italy and the German states.
- Mazzini believed that God had intended nations to be the natural units of mankind. So Italy could not continue to be a patchwork of small states and kingdoms. It had to be forged into a single unified republic within a wider alliance of nations. This unification alone could be the basis of Italian liberty. Mazzini was in favour of a republic because he thought sovereignity resides essentially in the people and can only completely express itself in that form. Mazzini’s relentless opposition to monarchy and his vision of democratic republics frightened the conservatives. Metternich described him as ‘the most dangerous enemy of our social order’.
- Young Italy’ attempted many insurrections but were unsuccessful. Mazzini failed in his objects because he himself lacked some of the qualities of practical leadership. He underestimated the strength of the opposition. But in spite of these drawbacks he is one of the chief makers of Italy. He was responsible for the growth of patriotism for a country that existed as yet only in the imagination.
Write a note on Count Camillo de Cavour.
- Cavour was a realist who practiced realistic politics. He allied with France when necessary and with France’s key enemy, Prussia, was necessary.
- Cavour used international power to achieve his domestic goals.
- He devoted himself to the liberation of northern Italy from Austrian domination. A brilliant and steadfast diplomat, he played a leading role in the unification of Italy.
- He was distrustful of the reactionary politics in force throughout Europe, particularly their manifestation in the repressive rule of Austria over a large area of Italy.
- He became Prime Minister of Piedmont in 1852. He reorganized its army and it achieved rapid growth in material prosperity. Through a tactful diplomatic alliance with France, Sardinia-Piedmont succeeded in defeating the Austrian forces in 1859.
- Apart from regular troops, a large number of armed volunteers under the leadership of Giuseppe Garibaldi joined the fight. In 1860, they marched into South Italy and the Kingdom of Two Sicilies and with the support of the local peasants drove out the Spanish rulers. Thus, Cavour was ultimately successful in the unification of Italy under King Victor Emmanuel II. He, however, died on June 6, 1861, before the completion of the unification of Italy in 1870. Although Cavour was neither a revolutionary nor a democrat he played an important role in the unification of Italy.
Write a note on The Greek war of independence.
- The Greek war of independence, also known as the Greek Revolution was a successful war of~m dependence waged by the Greek revolutionaries between 1821 and 1832 against the Ottoman Empire. The Greeks were later assisted by the Russian Empire, Great Britain, France and several other European powers, while the Ottomans were aided by their vassals, Egypt, Algeria etc.
- Events: Greece had been part of the Ottoman Empire since the 15th century. The growth of revolutionary nationalism in Europe sparked off a struggle for independence among st the Greeks which began in 1821.
- The object of the struggle was to expel Turks from Europe and to establish old Greek eastern empire.
- Nationalists in Greece were supported by other Greeks living in exile and many West European countries.
- Poets and artists lauded Greece as the cradle of European civilisation. They mobilised public opinion to support its struggle against a Muslim empire. The English poet Lord Byron organised funds and later went to fight in the war.
- Ultimately, the Treaty of Constantinople of 1832 recognised Greece as an independent nation. Its independence was guaranteed by Russia, England and France.
Write a note on Frankfurt parliament.
- Frankfurt Parliament (1848-49) was convened at Frankfurt on May 18, 1848 as a result of the liberal revolution that swept the German states early in 1848.
- The parliament was called by a preliminary assembly of German liberals in March 1848 and its members were elected by the direct manhood suffrage. They represented the entire political spectrum and included the foremost German figures of that time.
- Its purpose was to plan the unification of Germany.
- The conflict among the traditionally separate German states, notably Austria and Prussia made progress difficult.
- In March 1849 the parliament adopted a federal constitution of German states, excluding Austria, with a parliamentary government and a hereditary emperor. Frederick William IV of Prussia was chosen emperor but he refused to accept the crown from a popularly elected assembly and the entire scheme failed.
- Most of the representatives withdrew and the remainder were dispersed. The parliament, therefore, accomplished nothing as troops were called and the assembly was forced to disband.
What steps did the French revolutionaries take to create a sense of collective identity among the French people?
From the very beginning, the French revolutionaries introduced various measures and practices that could create a sense of collective identity amongst the French people. The ideas of la patrie (the fatherland) and le citoyen (the citizen) emphasized the notion of a united community enjoying equal rights under a constitution. A new French flag, the tricolour, was chosen to replace the former royal standard. The Estates General was elected by the body of active citizens and renamed the National Assembly. New hymns were composed, oaths taken and martyrs commemorated, all in the name of the nation. A centralised administrative system was put in place and it formulated uniform laws for all citizens within its territory. Internal customs duties and dues were abolished and a uniform system of weights and measures was adopted. Regional dialects were discouraged and French, as it was spoken and written in Paris, became the common language of the nation.
Who were Marianne and Germania? What was the importance of the way in which they were portrayed?
- In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, artists represented the country as if it were a person.
- Nations were portrayed as female figures that sought to give the abstract idea of the nation a concrete form.
- The female form that was chosen to personify the nation did not stand for any particular woman in a real life.
- Thus, in France, she was christened Marianne, a popular Christian name, which underlined the idea of a people’s nation.
- Her characteristics were drawn from those of liberty and the Republic – the red cap, the tricolour, the cockade.
- Statues of Marianne were installed in public squares to remind the public of the national symbols of unity and to persuade them to identify with it.
- Marianne images were marked on coins and stamps too.
- Similarly, Germania became the allegory of the German nation. In visual representations, Germania wears a crown of oak leaves, because the German oak stands for heroism.
The importance of the way in which they were portrayed was to remind the public of their national symbols of unity and to persuade them to identify with them.
Briefly trace the process of German unification.
Nationalist feelings were widespread among middle-class Germans, who in 1848 tried to unite the different regions of the German confederation into a nation-state governed by an elected parliament. This liberal initiative to nation-building was, however, repressed by the combined forces of the monarchy and the military, supported by the large landowners (called Junkers) of Prussia. From then on, Prussia took on the leadership of the movement for national unification. Its chief minister, Otto von Bismarck, was the architect of this process carried out with the help of the Prussian army and bureaucracy. Three wars over seven years – with Austria, Denmark and France – ended in Prussian victory and completed the process of unification. In January 1871, the Prussian king, William I, was proclaimed German Emperor in a ceremony held at Versailles.
What changes did Napoleon introduce to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him?
The following changes were introduced by Napoleon to make the administrative system more efficient in the territories ruled by him :
- Civil Code of 1804 or the Napoleonic Code was issued. It abolished all privileges based on birth. It established equality before the law and secured the right to property.
- Napoleon simplified administrative divisions in the Dutch Republic, in Switzerland, in
Italy and Germany. ,
- The feudal system was abolished and peasants were freed from serfdom and manorial dues.
- Guild restrictions were removed in towns.
- Improvements were made in the transport and communication systems.
- Uniform laws, standardized weights, and measures, and a common national currency was introduced. It facilitated the movement and exchange of goods and capital from one region to another. In view of the above reforms it is stated that through a return to monarchy, Napoleon had, no doubt, destroyed democracy in France, but in the administrative field, he had incorporated revolutionary principles in order to make the whole system more rational and efficient.
Explain what is meant by the 1848 revolution of the liberals. What were the political, social and economic ideas supported by the liberals?
Since the French Revolution, liberalism had stood for the end of autocracy and clerical privileges, a constitution and representative government through parliament. Nineteenth-century liberals also stressed the inviolability of private property. The memory of the French Revolution nonetheless continued to inspire liberals. One of the major issues taken up by the liberal-nationalists, who criticised the new conservative order, was freedom of the press.
Parallel to the revolts of the poor, unemployed and starving peasants and workers in many European countries in the year 1848, a revolution led by the educated middle classes was under way. Events of February 1848 in France had brought about the abdication of the monarch and a republic based on universal male suffrage had been proclaimed. In other parts of Europe where independent nation-states did not yet exist – such as Germany, Italy, Poland, the Austro-Hungarian Empire – men and women of the liberal middle classes combined their demands for constitutionalism with national unification. They took advantage of the growing popular unrest to push their demands for the creation of a nation-state on parliamentary principles – a constitution, freedom of the press and freedom of association.
How was the history of nationalism in Britain unlike the rest of Europe?
In Britain, the formation of the nation-state was not the result of a sudden upheaval or revolution. It was the result of a long-drawn-out process. There was no British nation prior to the eighteenth century. The primary identities of the people who inhabited the British Isles were ethnic ones – such as English, Welsh, Scot or Irish. All of these ethnic groups had their own cultural and political traditions. But as the English nation steadily grew in wealth, importance and power, it was able to extend its influence over the other nations of the islands. The English parliament, which had seized power from the monarchy in 1688 at the end of a protracted conflict, was the instrument through which a nation-state, with England at its centre, came to be forged.
The Act of Union (1707) between England and Scotland that resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’ meant, in effect, that England was able to impose its influence on Scotland. The British parliament was henceforth dominated by its English members. The growth of a British identity meant that Scotland’s distinctive culture and political institutions were systematically suppressed. The Catholic clans that inhabited the Scottish Highlands suffered terrible repression whenever they attempted to assert their independence. The Scottish Highlanders were forbidden to speak their Gaelic language or wear their national dress, and large numbers were forcibly driven out of their homeland
Why did nationalist tensions emerge in the Balkans?
The most serious source of nationalist tension in Europe after 1871 was the area called the Balkans. The Balkans was a region of geographical and ethnic variation comprising modern-day Romania, Bulgaria, Albania, Greece, Macedonia, Croatia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Slovenia, Serbia and Montenegro whose inhabitants were broadly known as the Slavs. A large part of the Balkans was under the control of the Ottoman Empire. The spread of the ideas of romantic nationalism in the Balkans together with the disintegration of the Ottoman Empire made this region very explosive.
All through the nineteenth century the Ottoman Empire had sought to strengthen itself through modernisation and internal reforms but with very little success. One by one, its European subject nationalities broke away from its control and declared independence. The Balkan peoples based their claims for independence or political rights on nationality and used history to prove that they had once been independent but had subsequently been subjugated by foreign powers. Hence the rebellious nationalities in the Balkans thought of their struggles as attempts to win back their long-lost independence.
Multiple Choice Questions
1. Who, among the following, hosted the Congress at Vienna in 1815. [AI 2012]
(a) King of the Netherlands
(b) Giuseppe Mazzini
(c) Duke Metternich
(d) Otto von Bismarck
2. Which one of the following is true about the ‘Treaty of Constantinople’ in 1832. [AI 2012]
(a) It recognised Turkey as an independent nation.
(b) It recognised Greece as an independent nation.
(c) It recognised Germany as an independent nation.
(d) It recognised France as an independent nation.
3. Who among the following formed the secret society called ‘Young Italy’. [Delhi 2012]
(a) Otto von Bismarck
(b) Giuseppe Mazzini
(d) Johann Gottfried Herder
Who among the following took power in the Southern part of Vietnam after the division of the country? [Delhi 2012]
(a) Ngo Dinh Diem
(b) Ho Chi Minh
(c) Bao Dai
4. Which one of the following types of government was functioning in France before the revolution of 1789?
(c) Body of French Citizen
Who among the following was known as ‘Colons’ [Delhi 2012]
(a) French citizens living in Vietnam
(b) French citizens living in France
(c) Educated people of Vietnam
(d) Elites of Vietnam
5. Which one of the following statements is false regarding the Act of Union 1707? [Delhi 2011]
(a) It was an agreement between England and Scotland.
(b) It was an agreement between England and Ireland.
(c) It resulted in the formation of the ‘United Kingdom of Great Britain’.
(d) It gave England control over Scotland.
6. Which one of the following states was ruled by an Italian princely house before the unification of Italy? [AI 2011]
(a) Kingdom of Two Sicilies
7. Which one of the following statements is not true about Giuseppe Mazzini? [Foreign 2011]
(a) He wanted the united Italian Republic.
(b) He founded an underground society called ‘Young Italy’.
(c) He wanted Italy to be a monarchy.
(d) He was exiled for attempting a revolution in Liguria.
8. Who said, “when France sneezes the rest of Europe catches cold”?
9. Which treaty recognised Greece as an independent nation?
(a) Treaty of Versailles
(b) Treaty of Vienna
(c) Treaty of Constantinople
(d) Treaty of Lausanne
10. Who was responsible *for the Unification of Germany?
11. Which area was known as the powder keg of Europe?
(d) Ottoman Empire
12. Elle, the measuring unit in Germany was used to measure
13. Zolleverin started in 1834 in Prussia refers to a
(a) Trade Union
(b) Customs Union
(c) Labour Union
(d) Farmer’s Union
14. The Ottoman Empire was ruled by the emperor of
15. At which of the following places was the Frankfurt Assembly convened
(a) at the church of St. Paul.
(b) at the church of St. Peters.
(c) at the palace of Prussia.
(d) at the Hall of Mirrors in the Palace of Versailles.
16. What did the crown of oak leaves symbolise?
17. By which of the following treaties was the United Kingdom of Great Britain formed?
(a) Treaty of Versailles
(b) Act of Union
(c) Treaty of Paris
(d) Treaty of Vienna
18. Who was Wolfe Tone?
(a) A French revolutionary.
(b) An Irish Catholic who revolted against British dominance.
(c) A German rebel who revolted against Kaiser William IV
(d) A British protestant leader.
19. Which of the following best explain Utopian society?
(a) A society where everybody is equal.
(b) A democratic society.
(c) An idealist society that can never be achieved.
(d) A society with a comprehensive Constitution.
20 After the French Revolution (1789) the right to vote was given to
(a) all adult population of the country.
(b) all property-owning male citizens of the country.
(c) all property-owning males and women of the country.
(d) all adults excluding women of the country.
21. The main function of the Prussian Zollverein was to
(a) impose a custom duty on imported goods.
(b) abolish the tariff barrier.
(c) reduce custom duties.
(d) impose new rules for trade.
22. Which of the following group of powers collectively defeated Napoleon?
(a) England, France, Italy, Russia.
(b) England, Austria, Spain, Russia.
(c) Austria, Prussia, Russia, Britain.
(d) Britain, Prussia, Russia, Italy.
23. Which of the following countries is considered as the ‘cradle of civilization’?
24. The Treaty of Vienna signed in 1815
(a) brought the conservative regimes back to power.
(b) destroyed the conservative powers of Europe.
(c) introduced democracy in Austria and Prussia.
(d) set up a new Parliament in Austria.
25. Romanticism refers to a
(a) cultural movement
(b) religious movement
(c) political movement
(d) literary movement
26. In Prussia, who was referred to as ‘Junkers’?
(a) Military officials
(b) Large landowners
(c) Factory owners
(d) Aristocratic nobles
27. Which of the following is an allegory/attribute for ‘liberty’?
(a) Crown of Oak
(b) Red Cap
(c) Olive Branch
28. What does a blindfolded woman carrying a pair of weighing scales symbolise?
29. Who among the following was proclaimed the first King of United Italy?
(a) Nicholas II
(b) King George II
(c) Wilhelm IV
(d) Victor Emannuel II
30 A nation-state is a state where
(a) people of all groups enjoy equal rights.
(b) where the nation has its own emblem and flag.
(c) a state which has a contiguous territory.
(d) a state where people live in a common territory, develop a sense of identity and share a common history.
31. Most important outcome of the French Revolution of 1789 was
(a) the abolition of absolute monarchy.
(b) making of a new Constitution.
(c) transfer of sovereignty from the monarch to the French citizens.
(d) Formation of the National Assembly.
32. Identify and mark the incorrect response. The Napoleonic Code
(a) did away with all the privileges based on ‘birth and established equality.
(b) destroyed feudalism in France.
(c) formulated codes for the army.
(d) ensured right to property for the privileged class.
33. A large number of people were hostile to the Napoleonic code because
(a) it was not suitable for all.
(b) it destroyed the special privileges of the rulers.
(c) administrative changes did not go hand-in-hand with political freedom.
(d) none of the above.
34. For the middle class of Europe, the most important feature of Liberalism was
(a) abolition of conservatism.
(b) right to be liberal and educated.
(c) individual freedom and equality before law.
(d) representative government.
35. Why did the Frankfurt Parliament fail to achieve its goal?
(a) Women were excluded from the membership.
(b) Did not have the support of the peasants.
(c) Kaiser William refused to accept the crown and opposed the assembly.
(d) None of the above.