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Online Class For 10th Standard Students (CBSE) (English Medium)
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NCERT Solutions for Class 10 English Footprints Without Feet Chapter 6 The Making of a Scientist

Read and Find Out
(Page 32)

Question 1.
How did a book become a turning point in Richard Ebright’s life?
Answer:
The book ‘The Travels of Monarch X’ opened the world of science for Richard. After reading it he became interested in tracking the migration of butterflies. This interest led to his other projects and experiments. Finally, he became a great scientist.

Question 2.
How did his mother help him?
Answer:
Richard’s mother proved to be a great help. She took him on trips and bought scientific equipment for him. She spent all her time in setting up challenges for him. This helped him to learn a lot. She presented him the book ‘The Travels of Monarch X’. The book changes Richard’s life forever.


Page 34
Question 1.
What lesson does Ebright learn when he does not win anything at a science fair?
Answer:
Ebright exhibited slides of frog tissues at a science fair. He did not get any prize. He learnt an important lesson that science is not just about display. It is about projects and experiments. He began conducting experiments from that day onwards.

Question 2.
What experiments and projects does he do then undertake?
Answer:
He undertook many projects and experiments. He worked on viceroy butterflies to show that they copied monarch butterflies. He studied bright spots on the monarch pupa and discovered a new hormone. Also, he found out how cells read their DNA.

Question 3.
What are the gualities that go into the making of a scientist?
Answer:
There are three essential qualities that make a scientist. The first is a first rate mind. Next is the presence of curiosity. Last but not the least, it is the will to do the best and win.

Think About It
(Page 38)

Question 1.
How can one become a scientist, an economist, a historian … ? Does it simply involve reading many books on the subject? Does it involve observing, thinking and doing experiments?
Answer:
Reading many books on a subject is not enough. One must develop the skill of observation and thinking. Experiments need to be done. One needs to have curiosity to explore and find new things. Above all, one must work hard and not get upset by failures.

Question 2.
You must have read about cells and DNA in your science books. Discuss Richard Ebright’s work in the light of what you have studied. If you get an opportunity to work like Richard Ebright on projects and experiments, which field would you like to work on and why?
Answer:
DNA carry the blue print of life and heredity. They pass information from one generation to the other.
If I get an opportunity to work like Richard Ebright, I would choose to study about diseases. By studying the DNA, I may find ways and means to cure many illnesses.

Talk About It
(Page 38)

Question 1.
Children everywhere wonder about the world around them. The questions they ask are the beginning of scientific inquiry. Given below are some questions that children in India have asked Prof. Yash Pal and Dr. Rahul Pal as reported in their book, Discovered Questions. (published by NCERT in 2006).

  1. What is DNA fingerprinting? What are its uses?
  2.  How do honeybees identify their own honeycombs?
  3. Why does rain fall in drops?

Can you answer these questions? You will find Prof. Yash Pal’s and Dr. Rahul’s answers (as given in Discovered Questions) on Page 75.
Answer:

  1. DNA fingerprinting is a forensic technique used to identify individuals by the characteristics of their DNA. It is used in parentage testing. It is also used in criminal investigation to identify a person or to place him at the scene of crime.
  2. Honeybees have signalling chemicals. They leave trails for fellow honeybees so that they can reach their honeycomb.
  3.  The only solid thing in the air are dust particles. Water vapour uses it as a centre of attraction when it becomes too heavy. Water vapor condenses on the dust particle as a drop and falls on Earth.

Question 2.
You also must have wondered about certain things around you. Share these questions with – your class, and try and answer them.
Answer:
Some of the questions are

  1.  Why is the sky blue?
  2. Why do stars twinkle?
  3.  What is a rainbow?
  4.  Why do fruits fall on Earth?

Class 10 English Chapter 6 The Making of a Scientist Important Questions

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What rare achievement did Richard manage at the age of twenty-two?

Answer: Richard had a rare honour at the age of twenty-two. He wrote an article with his friend about a theory of how cells work. The article was published in the scientific journal ‘Proceedings of the National Academy of Science.’ No one had this achievement at such a young age before him.

Question 2. Richard became a collector at an early age. How?

Answer: Richard was the only child of his parents. He had no company at home to play with. So, he started collecting things in his spare time. He would collect coins, fossils, rocks and butterflies as a hobby.

Question 3. Comment on the role played by Richard’s mother in his success.
Or
How did Ebright’s mother help him in becoming a scientist? [CBSE 2015]

Answer: Richard’s mother made Richard the centre of her life. She would buy microscopes, telescopes and books for him. She arranged trips for him and would also prepare difficult tasks for him. This helped him to learn a lot.

Question 4. How did ‘The Travels of Monarch X’ prove a turning point in his life?

Answer: Richard was bored with collecting butterflies. At this time, his mother got the book ‘The Travels of Monarch X’ for him. After reading the book, he studied the migration of butterflies and it opened the world of science to him.

Question 5. Why did Richard lose interest in tagging butterflies?

Answer: Richard raised thousands of butterflies, tagged them and released them to study their migration. But soon, he lost interest because only two of his tagged butterflies were returned to him and they had travelled only seventy-five miles.

Question 6. Which project did Richard undertake in the eighth grade?

Answer: Richard undertook the project to find the cause of a viral fever that had killed thousands of butterflies. He thought that a beetle might carry the virus although he was not able to prove it.

Question 7. Richard’s project on the purpose of the twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa was highly valuable in two ways. List the two ways.

Answer: This project had a huge impact. First, he discovered a hormone that was necessary for the growth of the pupa. Secondly, he got a chance to work at a famous laboratory.

Question 8. Mention any two of Ebright’s contributions to the world of science. [CBSE 2011]

Answer: Ebright discovered a hormone that was necessary for the growth of a butterfly. His other important contribution proved to be his study of how cells read their DNA.

Question 9. In addition to science, what were the other interests of Richard?

Answer: A part from science, Richard was a good debater and a public speaker as well as a canoeist and an all-round a outdoors person. He loved photography as well.

Question 10. Mr. Weiherer pays a glowing tribute to Richard. What did he say?

Answer: Mr. Weiherer was Ebright’s social studies teacher. He praised him for his brilliant mind, his curiosity and a will to win for the right reason. He also admired Richard for his spirit to do his very best all the time.

Question 11. Hobbies play a very important role in one’s life; elaborate this with reference to “The Making of a Scientist”. [CBSE 2016]

Answer: Richard Ebright started collecting butterflies as a hobby. This led him to research and discover many things. Hence, hobbies play an important role in one’s life.

Question 12. What were the factors which contributed in making Ebright a scientist? [CBSE 2014]

Answer: Three qualities of Ebright which contributed were a first rate mind, a sense of curiosity and a will to win for the right reason.

Question 13. Why did viceroy butterflies copy monarchs?

Answer: Viceroy butterflies copied monarchs because monarchs do not taste good to birds. Viceroy butterflies on the other hand taste good to birds. So, the more they look similar to monarchs, the less likely they are to become a bird’s prey. Thus they protect themselves.

Question 14. Why did Richard Ebright give up tagging butterflies?

Answer: Richard Ebright lost interest in tagging butterflies as it was tedious and there was not much feedback. He could recapture only two butterflies in all the time he did it and they were not more than seventy five miles away from where he lived.

Question 15. What was the common belief about the twelve tiny gold spots on a monarch pupa? What is the actual purpose of these tiny gold spots?

Answer: These twelve tiny gold spots were believed to be ornamental only. The actual purpose of these tiny gold spots is to produce a hormone necessary for the butterfly’s full development.

Question 16. What other interests besides science did Richard Ebright pursue?

Answer: Richard Ebright was a champion debater and public speaker. He was a good canoeist and all-around outdoor person. He was also an expert photographer, particularly of natural and scientific exhibits.

Question 17. How did Richard Ebright’s mother help him to become a scientist?

Answer: Ebright’s mother was his only companion. She used to encourage the child to learn whatever he wanted to learn. She took him on trips, brought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras, mounting materials and other such equipments.

Question 18. Mention any two Ebright contributions to the world of science.

Answer: Ebright made valuable contributions to the world of science. He discovered an unknown insect hormone and also determined how the cell could read the blueprint of its DNA.

Question 19. What lesson did Ebright learn when he did not win anything at the science fair?

Answer: When Ebright did not win anything at the science fair, he learnt a lesson that he needed to do real experiments, not simply make a neat display. His entry was slides of frog tissues which he showed under a microscope.

Question 20. What lesson does Ebright learn when he does not win anything at a science fair?

Answer: Ebright realizes that were display of his collection does not mean science. To win at a science fair he will have to do real experiments and prove his worth.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Richard’s mother had a great influence on him. Discuss.
Or
Discuss the role of Ebright’s mother in making him a scientist. [CBSE 2011]

Answer: Richard’s mother played a huge role in making him a great scientist. She would take him on trips to encourage learning. He was a single child. After his father died, his mother made him the focus of her life. She would buy him all kinds of microscopes, telescopes and other equipment. After dinner, she gave him problems to solve. This helped Richard to learn a lot. She was his only companion for a long time. It was his mother who got him the book ‘The Travels of Monarch X’. This book opened the world of science for Richard. She also wrote to Dr Urquhart to guide her son. The scientist helped Richard and guided him. Thus, his mother actually shaped him into an extraordinary scientist.

Question 2. Ebright’s study of monarch pupas had a far reaching impact. Elaborate.

Answer: For a long time the scientific community had regarded the bright spots on a monarch pupa as purely ornamental. But Dr Urquhart did not believe it. Nor did Richard. He started his experiments on the monarch pupa. He built a device with the help of a friend. This led to the discovery of a hormone. Richard proved that the hormone was necessary for the growth of the butterfly. This discovery got him many honours. Also, it led to another important study. He began working on how cells read their DNA. DNA is the carrier of heredity and is called the blueprint of life. His theory could find answers to many cancers and diseases.

Question 3. Richard Ebright displayed a well-rounded personality. Do you agree? Elucidate in the context of the given text. [CBSE 2016]

Answer: Richard’s genius was obvious by the time he was in his second grade. He managed to collect all twenty-five . species of butterflies around his hometown and classify them. He also loved to collect coins, fossils and rocks. Science was not his only passion. He was an active member of his school’s oratory club and model United Nations club and was an effective debater and a public speaker. He loved photography as well.

He was an enthusiastic canoeist and an all-around outdoors person. Learning was easy for him. So he found it simple to devote time and energy to many other interests. He became a champion in whatever he did. He believed in the spirit of competition to win. But, he did not wish to defeat others just to win. He wanted to win to do his best. Thus, he displayed a well-tounded personality.

Question 4. Dr Urquhart contributed significantly to Ebright’s growth as a scientist. Explain.

Answer: Richard had become bored with collecting butterflies. His mother got him a book on the migration of butterflies. Richard came in contact with Dr Urquhart through the book. Dr Urquhart directed him to study the migration pattern of butterflies.

When he did not win any prize in the science fair in seventh grade, he again wrote to Dr Urquhart to guide him. The scientist gave him many suggestions for new experiments. Richard performed these experiments throughout his high school and won many prizes. Later, he worked on why bright spots are found on a monarch pupa, motivated by Dr Urquhart. It led to the discovery of a new hormone. The discovery of this new hormone further led to an important theory. The theory was about how cells read their DNA. In this way Dr Urquhart proved to be his true mentor.

Question 5. What are the values required to become a successful scientist like Richard Ebright? Elaborate with reference to the lesson ‘The Making of a Scientist’.

Answer: Curiosity to know more and a motivation to find reasons for existence of anything or any phenomena are necessary for becoming a successful scientist. The urge to know more develops the scientific aptitude in a person. At a very young age, Ebright became competitive by participating in various county fairs. He never lost hope and kept on trying to do better. In addition to curiosity and motivation, Ebright displayed the qualities of hard work, sincerity, determination and patience. He also accepted failure and success in the right spirit. Thus, he became a successful scientist.

Question 6. Although Richard does not win anything at the science fair but it was a stepping stone for his success. With reference to the story ‘The Making of a Scientist’ of the above statement, give your comments whether competitions are for winning sake or to give your best at work.

Answer: It is true, no one can deny the fact that every person wants to be a winner. Each has basic wish to reach ‘ at the top. For that many competitions are organised at various levels. But still we must accept that all cannot be winners. Participation is more important than winning. The participant should work hard to reach their level best. Failures should not make us disheartened and best way to overcome failure is to learn through our mistakes. We cannot deny that experimentation and learning are stepping stones to our success. So we should try to give our best.

Question 7. Besides curiosity a number of other values are required to become a successful scientist. Explain with reference to the chapter, ‘The Making of a Scientist’.

Answer: From very young age Richard Ebright was competitive and put in extra effort with curiosity for the right reason to win. But his mother was always very dedicated and made his spirits rise high. He did not lose heart even after losing when he was in seventh grade. To him people around were very encouraging.

His mother’s encouragement was really an eye-opener. She took him on trips, bought him telescopes, microscopes, cameras, mounting materials and other equipment. Thus constant support of each other opened a new world. This helps us to conclude that hard work, parental guidance and keen observation are the qualities which help one to excel.

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