Name one important beverage crop and specify the geographical conditions required for its growth.
Tea is also an important beverage crop introduced in India, along with coffee. The tea plant grows well in tropical and sub-tropical climates. It requires deep and fertile well-drained soil, rich in humus and organic matter. Tea bushes require warm and moist frost-free climate all through the year. Frequent showers evenly distributed over the year ensure continuous growth of tender leaves.
Name one staple crop of India and the regions where it is produced.
Cotton is one of the staple crops of India. Major cotton-producing states are – Maharashtra, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh.
Enlist the various institutional reform programmes introduced by the government in the interest of farmers.
Abolition of zamindari.
Consolidation of smallholdings.
Provision for crop insurance against drought, flood, cyclone, fire, and disease.
Establishment of Grameen banks, cooperative societies, Kissan Credit Card and Personal Accident Insurance Scheme, and banks for providing loan facilities to the farmers at lower rates of interest.
Announcement regarding Minimum support prices to ensure farmers did not suffer if the pres crashed due to bumper crops.
Subsidy on agricultural inputs and resources such as power and fertilisers.
The land under cultivation has got reduced day by day. Can you imagine its consequences?
India shall no longer be self-sufficient in its requirements of food grains.
Landless labourers will outweigh the ranks of unskilled – unemployed workers in India.
More farmers will switch over to the cultivation of high-value crops.
Suggest the initiative taken by the government to ensure the increase in agricultural production.
Organic farming is much in vogue today because it is practiced without factor made chemicals such as fertilisers and pesticides. Hence, it does not affect the environment in a negative manner. Indian farmers should diversify their cropping pattern from cereals to high-value crops. This will increase incomes and reduce environmental degradation simultaneously. Because fruits, medicinal herbs, flowers, vegetables, bio-diesel crops like jatropha and jojoba need much less irrigation than rice or sugarcane. India’s diverse climate can be harnessed to grow a wide range of high-value crops.
How did the partition of the country in 1947 affect the jute industry?
Jute: It is known as the golden fibre. Jute grows well on well-drained fertile soils in the flood plains where soils are renewed every year. High temperature is required during the time of growth. It is used in making gunny bags, mats, ropes, yarn, carpets, and other artifacts. Due to its high cost, it is losing the market to synthetic fibres and packing materials, particularly the nylon.
Describe the geographical conditions required for the growth of rice.
This Kharif crop requires high temperature, (above 25°C) and high humidity with annual rainfall over 100 cm. In the areas of less rainfall, it grows with the help of irrigation. Rice is grown in the plains of north and northeastern India, coastal areas, and the deltaic regions. Development of a dense network of canal irrigation and tubewells have made it possible to grow rice in areas of less rainfall such as Punjab, Haryana and western Uttar Pradesh, and parts of Rajasthan.
Multiple Choice Questions
Previous Years’ Questions
1. In which type of soil does maize grow well? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(b) Light domat
(c) Old alluvial
(d) None of the above
2. Which of the following crops are grown with the onset of monsoons and are harvested in the months of September-October? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(d) None of the above
3. Which one of the following is a rabi crop? [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
4. ‘Slash and burn’ agriculture is a [CBSE (CCE) 2011]
(a) Shifting agriculture
(b) Intensive agriculture
(c) Commercial agriculture
(d) None of these
5. Which one of the following describes a system of agriculture where a single crop is grown on a large area ?
(a) Shifting Agriculture
(b) Plantation Agriculture
(d) Intensive Agriculture
6. Which one of the following is a leguminous crop?
7. Which one of the following is announced by the government in support of a crop ?
(a) Maximum support price
(b) Minimum support price
(c) Moderate support price
(d) Influential support price
8. Jhumming refers to
(a) Primitive subsistence farming in Brazil.
(b) ‘Slash and burn’ agriculture in North-eastern states of India.
(c) Primitive farming in Malaysia.
(d) Commercial farming in Punjab.
9. Bhoodan – Gramdan movement was initiated by
(a) Mahatma Gandhi
(b) Jawaharlal Nehru
(c) Vinoba Bhave
(d) Bal GangadharTilak
10. India is the leading producer and exporter of ………….. in the world.
11. Rearing of silkworms is called as
12. Yellow revolution refers to
(a) increased production of eggs.
(b) increased production of oilseeds.
(c) increased production offish.
(d) increased production of pulses.
13. Cultivation of fruits and vegetables is called
14. The third agricultural season is
15. India is the ………….. largest producer of sugarcane in the world.
16. Which one of the following states is the leading producer of rubber ?
(a) Jammu and Kashmir
(b) Arunachal Pradesh
(d) Andhra Pradesh
17. White revolution refers to
(a) increased production of flowers.
(b) increased production of eggs.
(c) increased production of milk.
(d) increased production of fish.
18. The leading producer of Jowar is ……………..
(a) Tamil Nadu
19. Which position does India rank in terms of rice production in the world ?
20. Which one of the following statements is incorrect as regards to commercial farming ?
(a) Use of heavy doses of modern inputs.
(b) Crops are grown for sale.
(c) Family members are involved in growing crops.
(d) Practised on large land holdings.
21. Intensive subsistence farming is practised in area of ……………
(a) high population
(b) low population
(d) thick forests
22. Punjab and Haryana grow rice mainly due to
(a) availability of cheap labour.
(b) development of canals irrigation and tubewells.
(c) fertile soil.
(d) development of transport network.
23. A type of millet rich in iron, calcium, other micro nutrients and roughage is …………..
24. Which crop is grown covering 12 per cent of total cropped area ?
(c) Oil seeds
25. Specialised cultivation of fruits and vegetables is called
26. Which one of the following countries produce 13 per cent of world’s vegetables ?
27. Rearing of silk worms to produce raw silk is called ………………
28. Which crop is used both as food crop and feed crop ?
29. India is the largest producer and consumer of this crop
(d) Oil seeds
30. Tea is a beverage crop initially introduced by the …………….
31. India produces ………. percent of world’s coffee production.
(a) 2 percent
(b) 5 percent
(c) 4 percent
(d) 1 percent
32. Oranges are mainly produced in the state of …………..
(a) Madhya Pradesh
(d) Tamil Nadu
33. Grapes are mainly produced in the state of …………..
(b) Himachal Pradesh
(d) Andhra Pradesh
34. ICAR refers to
(a) International Council of Aeronautical Research
(b) Indian Council of Agricultural Research
(c) Indian Council of Animal Research
(d) International Commission for Agricultural Research
35. Grouping of small land holdings into a bigger one is called
(a) ceiling on land holdings.
(c) cooperative farming.
(d) consolidation of land holdings.
36. Which one of the following crops is commercial crop in one state while it is subsistence crop in another state ?
37. Which day is celebrated as World Food Day ?
(a) 11th April
(b) 16th October
(c) 10th November
(d) 15th December
38. The percentage of India’s population engaged in agriculture is
39. A type of farming in which crops are grown using primitive tools is …………….
(a) Primitive subsistence farming
(b) Extensive agriculture
(d) Commercial farming
40. Rabi crops are sown in
41. Which one of the following states is the leading producer of Jute?
(a) Madhya Pradesh
(d) West Bengal