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Class 10th Science
Class 10th Maths
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About Lesson

Oral Comprehension Check
Page 18,19

Question 1.
Where did the ceremonies take place ? Can you name any public buildings in India that are made of sandstones?
The ceremonies took place in the campus of the Union Building of Pretoria, which were attended by dignitaries and leaders of many nations. In India; Rashtrapati Bhavan and Red Fort are buildings made of red sandstone.

Question 2.
Can you say how 10th May is an ‘autumn day’ in South Africa?
As South Africa is in the Southern Hemisphere, may falls in the autumn season. Thus 10th May is an ‘autumn day’.

Question 3.
At the beginning of his speech, Mandela mentions “an extraordinary human disaster”. What does he mean by this? What is the “glorious human achievement” he speaks of at the end?
By ‘an extraordinary human disaster’ Mandela means to state the practice of apartheid in South Africa. During this there was a racial segregation based on colour and the blacks suffered a lot. They were not allowed to demand freedom or any right. Mandela himself did spend many years on infamous ‘Robben Island’ as a prisoner where he was beaten mercilessly. He considered it as great glorious human achievement that a black person became the President of a country where the blacks were not even considered human beings and were treated badly.

Question 4.
What does Mandela thank the international leaders for ?
Mandela felt very privileged to welcome the international leaders at the swearing – in ceremony because not too long ago, the South Africans were considered outlaws. He thus thanks all of them for having come to witness the historical ceremony. This was a gesture of international recognition to a newly born free democratic nation and it could be considered as a common victory for justice, peace and human dignity.

Question 5.
What ideals does Nelson Mandela set for the future of South Africa?
Nelson Mandela set the ideals of liberating people from bondage of poverty, deprivation and suffering. He also set the ideal for a society where there would be no discrimination based on gender or racial origins.

Page 21

Question 1.
What did the military generals do ? How did their attitude change and why?
The highest military generals of South African defence force saluted Mandela and pledged their loyalty which was of great significance as during apartheid era they would have arrested him. The change in their attitude was because of struggle and sacrifices put in by many heroes of South Africa. This struggle not only ensured the freedom of a nation struggling with apartheid, bur brought a change in mindsets of many. He believed that love can also be taught and human being is naturally inclined towards love rather than hate.

Question 2.
Why were two national anthems sung?
One the auspicious occasion of the inauguration two national anthems: one by the Whites and the other by the Blacks symbolising the equality of the Blacks and the Whites were sung.

Question 3.
How does Mandela describe the systems of government in his country
(i) in the first decade, and
(ii) in the final decade, of the twentieth century?
(i) In the first decade of the century, the whites erected a system of racial domination against the blacks, thus creating the basis of one of the harshest and most inhumane societies the world had ever known.
(ii) In the final decade of the 20th century, the . previous system had been overturned and replaced by one which recognised rights and freedom of all people regardless of color of their skin.

Question 4.
What does courage mean to Mandela?
For Mandela courage does not mean the absence of fear but a victory over fear. According to him brave men need not be fearless but should be able to conquer fear.

Question 5.
Which does Mandela think is natural, to love or to hate?
For Mandela, love comes more naturally to the human heart than hate.

Page 4

Question 1.
What “twin obligations” does Mandela mention?
Mandela mentions that every man has twin obligations. The first is to his family, parents, wife and children; the second obligation is to his people, his community and his country.

Question 2.
What did being free mean to Mandela as a boy, and as a student ? How does he contrast these “transitory freedoms” with “the basic and honourable freedoms”?
Like any other kid, for Mandela freedom meant to make merry and enjoy the blissful life. Once one becomes an adult, antics of childhood looks like transitory because most of the childish activities are wasteful from an adult’s perspective. Once you are adult, you have to earn a livelihood to bring the bacon home. Its only then when you get an honourable existence in the family and in the society.

Question 3.
Does Mandela think the oppressor is free? Why/why not?
Mandela does not think that the oppressor is free because according to him an oppressor is a victim of hatred who is behind the bars of prejudice and narrow-mindedness. He realises that both the oppressor and the oppressed are robbed of their humanity and peace.

Thinking about the Text
(Page 24)

Question 1.
Why did such a large number of international leaders attend the inauguration ? What did it signify the triumph of?
To be the part of the inauguration, international leaders showed a gesture of solidarity from international community to the idea of end of apartheid. It was the significance of the victory of good over evil and triumph of a tolerant society without any discrimination.

Question 2.
What does Mandela mean when he says he is “simply the sum of all those African patriots”, who had gone before him ?
By saying that he is simply the sum of all those African patriots, Mandela wants to pay his tribute to all the people who have sacrificed their lives for the sake of freedom. He says that he is grateful to those who had gone before him because those heroes of past had paved the path of co-operation and unity for him. Therefore, he could try to come to power to bring equality for his people with their support.

Question 3.
Would you agree that the “depths of oppression” create “heights of character”? How does Mandela illustrate this? Can you add your own examples to this argument ?
I agree with the statement that depths of oppression create heights of character. Nelson Mandela illustrates this by giving examples of great heroes of South Africa like Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu and others who were inspired to sacrifice their lives in the long freedom struggle.
India is full of such examples, during our freedom struggle there was a galaxy of leaders of great characters and the oppression of British rule created and encouraged people of noble characters like Mahatma Gandhi, Lala Lajpat Rai, JL Nehru, Chandra Shekhar Ajad, Sardar Bhagat Singh and many more. If we compare them with the quality of political leaders India is having today, then Nelson Mandela seems to be absolutely right;

Question 4.
How did Mandela’s understanding of freedom change with age and experience?
With age and experience, Mandela understood the real meaning of freedom. As a young boy, he thought that he was born free and believed that as long as he obeyed his father and abided by the customs of his tribe, he was free in every possible manner. As he grew older, freedom to raise a family and freedom to earn livelihood started dominating his thoughts. Gradually he realised that he was selfish during his boyhood. He slowly understood that it was not just his freedom that was being curtailed, but the freedom of all blacks. It was the freedom from fear and prejudice. Age and experience widened his perspective of freedom.

Question 5.
How did Mandela’s ‘hunger for freedom’ change his life?
Mandela realised in his youth that it was not just his freedom that was being curtailed, but the freedom of all blacks. This changed the fearfulman to a fearless rebel.
He sacrificed the comforts of a settled family life to fight for a greater cause. He joined the African National Congress and this changed him from a frightened young man into a bold one who fought against racial prejudice.

Thinking about Language
(Page 24,25,26)

1. There are nouns in the text (formation, government) which are formed from the corresponding verbs (form, govern) by suffixing – (at)ion or ment. There may be change in the spelling of some verb – noun pairs ; such as rebel, rebellion; constitute, constitution.
Make a list of such pairs of nouns and verbs in the text

Noun Verb
Rebellion Rebel
Constitution Constitute

2. Here are some more examples of ‘the’ used with proper names. Try to say what these sentences mean. (You may consult a dictionary if you wish. Look at the entry for ‘the’)
(i) Mr Singh regularly invites the Amitabh Bachchans and the Shah Rukh Khans to his parties.
(ii) Many people think that Madhuri Dixit is the Madhubala of our times.
(in) History is not only the story of the Alexanders, the Napoleons and the Hitlers, but of ordinary people as well.
3. Match, the italicised phrases in Column A with the phrase nearest meaning in Column B.
(Hint: First look for the sentence in the text which the phrase in column A occurs.)

1. I was not unmindful of the fact. (i) had not forgotten : was aware of the fact
(ii) was not careful about the fact
(iii) forgot or was not aware of the fact
2. When my comrades and I were pushed to our limits (i) pushed by the guards to the wall
(ii) took more than our share of beatings
(iii) felt that we could not endure the suffering any longer
3. To reassure me and keep me going (i) make me go on walking
(ii) help me continue to live in hope in this very difficult situation
(iii) make me remain without complaining

4. The basic and honourable freedoms of… earning my keep…

(i) earning enough money to live on
(ii) keeping what I earned
(iii) getting a good salary


1. Ans:

Noun Verb
Rebellion Rebel
Constitution Constitute
Formation Form
Government Govern
Obligation Oblige
Transformation Transform
Discrimination Discriminate
Deprivation Deprive
Demonstration Demonstrate
Oppression Oppress
Imagination Imagine

2. Ans:
(i) :  This means that Mr Singh regularly invites famous personalities as of the calibre of Amitabh Bachchan and Shah Rukh Khan to his parties.
(ii) This means that Madhuri Dixit is compared to a landmark in acting in the form of legendary actress Madhubala.
(iii) This means that history is not only the story of the great fighters and leaders such as Alexander, Napoleon and Hitler, but also of ordinary people.

3. Ans:

1. I was not unmindful of the fact (i) had not forgotten;was aware of the fact not endure the
2. When my comrades and I were pushed to our limits (iii) felt that we could not endure the suffering any longer
3. To reassure me and keep me going (ii) help me continue to live in hope in this live in hope in this very difficult situation
4. The basic and honourable freedoms of… earning my keep… (i) earning enough money to live on

Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1. Where did the oath-taking ceremony take place?

Answer: The oath-taking ceremony took place in Union Buildings of Pretoria.

Question 2. What promise does Mandela make in the beginning of opening of his oath-taking speech?

Answer: Mandela thanks all the international leaders and guests as he calls it an occasion of joy and victory for Justice. He promises that the country shall not again experience the oppression of one by another.

Question 3. What ideals did Mandela set out for the future of South Africa in his speech?

Answer: Mandela set out ideals for the future of South Africa because he had deep feelings for his country and countrymen. He pledged to liberate all the people from poverty, deprivation and discrimination.

Question 4. What freedom meant to Mandela in childhood? [CBSE 2015]

Answer: During childhood the meaning of freedom for Mandela was quite limited he considered it to be free to run in the fields, to swim in the clear stream, free to roast mealies and ride the board backs of slow moving bulls.

Question 5. Why did inauguration ceremony take place in the amphitheatre formed by the Union Building in Pretoria?

Answer: It was the first democratic, non-racial government taking oath in South Africa. The ceremony was attended by dignitaries from more than 140 countries around the world and thousands of the people of South Africa of all the races to make the day memorable. So, it took place in, the amphiteatre formed by the Union Building in Pretoria.

Question 6. What are the ideals which Mandela set for the future of South Africa in his swearing- in ceremony?

Answer: Mandela emphasised to liberate all the people from poverty, deprivation, suffering, gender and other discriminations in his swearing-in ceremony.

Question 7. What did Mandela think for oppressor and oppressed? [CBSE 2011]

Answer: Mandela always thought that both oppressor and oppressed are deprived of their humanity. Oppressor is a prisoner of hatred while oppressed has no confidence in humanity so both of them need to be liberated.

Question 8. What do you understand by Apartheid’?

Answer: ‘Apartheid’ is a political system that divides people according to their race. In this system black-coloured people in South Africa were not free even to discharge their personal and social obligations of being parents, sons and husbands, etc.

Question 9. Describe the effect of the policy of apartheid on the people of South Africa.

Answer: The policy of apartheid could not be considered fortunate for the people of South Africa. It created distance and a deep wound in the country and the people. Many great men like Oliver Tambo, Walttr Sisulu, Yusuf Dadoo, Bram Fischer, etc were produced due to the brutality and oppression. They were men of great character

Question 10. How is courage related to the brave man according to the author of the lesson?

Answer: The author believes that courage is not the absence of fear, but it is the triumph over it. The brave man is not the one who does not feel fear of any kind but he is the one who has the courage to conquer it.

Question 11. Could everyone fulfil the obligations personal or social in South Africa?

Answer: No, everyone was not free to fulfil their obligations because of colour of the skin. If a person tried to fulfil their obligations, they were punished and isolated for being a rebellion.

Question 12. What did Mandela realise about his brothers and sisters? [CBSE 2012]

Answer: Mandela realised that his brothers and sisters were not free in their own country due to their colour. The freedom of everyone in his society was curtailed. He joined the African National Congress and fought for the freedom.

Question 13. Why was Nelson Mandela changed into a bold man?

Answer: Nelson Mandela was changed into a bold man due to his . desire of the freedom for his country and his countrymen. He wanted to live a life with dignity as he could not enjoy the limited freedom.

Question 14. What did Mandela think about the oppressor and the oppressed?

Answer: Mandela thought about the oppressor and the oppressed that both are robbed equally. A mail who takes away another man’s freedom is a prisoner of hatred. In the same way, if his freedom is taken away, they both are without freedom. So both of them must be liberated.

Question 15. How did ‘hunger for freedom’ change Mandela’s life?

Answer: In the beginning of his life, Mandela was not aware about freedom. Later, Mandela found that his freedom had been taken away from him. As a student, he wanted freedom only for himself but slowly his own freedom became the greater hunger for the freedom of his people. This changed him completely.

Question 16. What are the ‘twin obligations’ referred to by Nelson Mandela?

Answer: According to Nelson Mandela, every man has two obligations in life. The first obligation is to his family, to his parents, wife and children. Secondly, he has an obligation to his country, people, and community.

Question 17. Could a man. according to Mandela, fulfil these twin obligations in a country like South Africa?

Answer: No, these twin obligations could not be fulfilled by a man, in a country like South Africa, according to Mandela. It was because a man of dark colour who attempted just to live as a human being was punished and isolated in the country.

Question 18. What is the meaning of courage to Mandela?

Answer: According to Mandela, courage was not the absence of fear, but triumph over it. The brave man is not he who does not feel afraid, but he who conquers that fear. Mandela learned the true meaning of courage from his comrades in the struggle.

Question 19. What was unique in the inauguration ceremony?

Answer: The inauguration ceremony took place in the amphitheatre formed by the Union Buildings in Pretoria. For decades, this had been the seat of white supremacy. Now it was the oath taking ceremony day for South Africa’s first democratic, non-racial government. It was really a unique occasion.

Question 20. Describe the inauguration ceremony in simple words?

Answer: It was the day of 10th May, 1994. The first democratic, non- racial government was to be installed. Dignitaries from different countries participated in the ceremony. South African men, women and children of all races were present there.

Question 21. Describe Mandela’s life journey from a prisoner to the first black President of south Africa.

Answer: Nelson Mandela did a life-long struggle against the racial discrimination in South Africa. He had to pass many years of his life as a prisoner in the jail. At last the first democratic elections were held in South Africa. His party won 252 seats out of400 and he became the first black President of South Africa.

Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1. What does Nelson Mandela refer to as “an extraordinary human disaster”?

Answer: Nelson Mandela refers to the apartheid policy of the white race against the black people as “an extraordinary human disaster”. White people snatched freedom from the coloured people of South Africa to whom the country belonged. The black people were subjected to oppression for long. They were not even allowed to discharge their obligations to their own families, community and their country. White people had no compassion for them and oppressed their own people and put them in prison. If they had some freedom, it was curtailed. The black people lived the life of a slave.

Question 2. Describe the views of Mandela for the black people who fought and sacrificed their likes for the country’s political independence?

Answer: Mandela always said that the political freedom was the result of sacrifices of thousands of the black people who fought for that. He said that it could not be repaid. He thought himself as the sum of all of those African patriots. He regretted that he could not thank them. He cursed the policy of apartheid that wounded the people of his country, which would take centuries to heal.

He also said that the oppression and brutality of the white people produced great freedom fighters like Oliver Tambo, Walter Sisulu, Luthuli, Dadoo, Fischer, Sobukwe and many more. They were the men of courage, wisdom and large heartedness. They really suffered a lot for the political freedom of the country.

Question 3. What does Mandela mean to say that the oppressor and the oppressed alike are robbed of their humanity?

Answer: Mandela is right in saying that the oppressor and the oppressed alike are robbed of their humanity. Both of them are actually the victim of hatred. Everyone is obliged to discharge their duties whether personal or social but without freedom a man cannot do so. The person who snatches this freedom of a man is really an oppressor and a prisoner of hatred. He has lack of humanity. But this is the same with a person who is oppressed by other.

Question 4. Describe the obligations which the author is talking about and also describe his feelings for them?

Answer: In the chapter the author has talked about two obligation for every man. The first obligation is towards his family, parents, his wife and children. The second is towards his community and his country. Being a social person one has to fulfil these obligations.

But being a black coloured person in South Africa, a man was not free to perform his obligations and got punished if he tried to do that.
Being a child the author never thought of such obligations but after he did so, he fought for the people and the country to be free and enjoy their freedom of performing their duties personal and social.

Question 5. Describe the value of freedom for the human beings and how it is important for the growth of civilisation and humanism as described in the lesson ‘Nelson Mandela: Long Walk to Freedom’. [CBSE2014]

Answer: Everybody whether human or other creatures wants to live free as freedom is natural to all living beings. The value of freedom is better known to that human being who has not tasted it till he gets it. A person who is chained with the limits and not allowed to perform his duties freely, values freedom more than anyone else. For instance the value of freedom is known better to Mandela who remained behind the bars most of his life. Think about a bird or animal which is caged as they have the habit of living with full freedom but in the cage they are not free and their conditions are very pitiable. Similarly, life becomes a hell if we are deprived of freedom. There is no growth of civilisation as it grows only when one has freedom. Similarly, humanism grows in the atmosphere of freedom.

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