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India Size and Location Class 9 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 1

The following topics from this chapter are being highlighted the most in the previous 3 year’s examinations and thereby hold significant importance.

An important point is that only factual questions have been asked from this chapter (Very Short Answer Type).

For example, the latitudinal and longitudinal extension of India, neighbouring countries of India etc.

  • Location of India
  • Size of India
  • India and the World
  • Neighbours of India.


India lies entirely in the Northern Hemisphere.

India’s mainland extends between 8°4’N and 37°6’N latitudes, and 68°7’E and 97°25’E longitudes.

The Tropic of Cancer (23°30’N) divides India into two almost equal parts.

The northernmost point of India which is under Indian administration is near Indira Col, Siachen Glacier.

The southernmost point in India is Indira Point on Nicobar Island.


Covering an area of 3.28 million square kilometres, India’s total area is 2.4% of the total geographical area of the world.

India is the world’s seventh-largest country with a land boundary of about 15,200 km, with the total length of the coastline being 7,516.6 km.
India’s East-West extent appears to be smaller than the north-south extent.

India and The World

The Indian landmass is centrally located between West and East Asia.

India’s protruding Deccan Peninsula helped India to establish close contacts with West Asia, Africa and Europe, South-East and East Asia.

India’s contacts with the world via land routes are much more than Its maritime contacts.

India has contributed a lot to the world in the forms of ideas, philosophies (Upanishads, Ramayana, Panchtantra) and in mathematics (Indian numerals and decimal system, algebra, trigonometry and calculus).

In exchange, India’s architecture was influenced by Greek sculpture and architectural styles from West Asia.

India’s Neighbours

India has an important position in South Asia and has 29 States and 7 Union Territories.

India shares its boundaries with Pakistan, Afghanistan, China, Nepal, Bangladesh, Myanmar and Bhutan.

The southern neighbours across the sea consist of the two island countries, namely Maldives and Sri Lanka.

India stands apart from the rest of Asia and is called a sub-continent.


India is lying entirely in the Northern hemisphere, as shown in the figure below.

  • The land extends between latitudes 8°4’N and 37°6’N and longitudes 68°7’E and 97°25’E.
  • The Tropic of Cancer (23° 30’N) divides India into almost two equal parts.


India’s total area accounts for about 2.4% of the total geographical area of the world. Thus, it is the 7th largest country in the world, by its size.

  • India has a land boundary of about 15,200 km.
  • The total length of the coastline of the mainland is 7,516.6 km including Andaman and Nicobar and Lakshadweep.
  • India is bounded by the mountains in the northwest, north and northeast. South of about 22° north latitude, it begins to taper and extends towards the Indian Ocean, dividing it into two seas, the Arabian Sea on the west and the Bay of Bengal on its east.
  • Time along the Standard Meridian of India (82°30’E) passing through Mirzapur (in Uttar Pradesh) is taken as the standard time for India.

The map below shows the Extent of India and Standard Meridian.

India and the World

The Indian landmass has a central location between East and West Asia. India is a southward extension of the Asian continent. The trans-Indian Ocean routes connect the countries of Europe in the West and the countries of East Asia. No other country has as long a coastline on the Indian Ocean as India has. India’s contacts with the World have continued through the ages. The spices, muslin and other merchandise were taken from India to different countries. On the other hand, the influence of Greek sculpture, and the architectural styles of domes and minarets from West Asia can be seen in different parts of India.

India’s Neighbours

India has 29 states and seven Union Territories. India shares its land boundaries with:

  • Pakistan and Afghanistan in the northwest
  • China (Tibet), Nepal and Bhutan in the north
  • Myanmar and Bangladesh in the east

The southern neighbours across the sea consist of the two island countries, Sri Lanka and Maldives. India has had strong geographical and historical links with its neighbours.

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