Economics Class 9 Ncert Solutions Chapter 1 The story of village Palampur
Modern farming methods require more inputs, which are manufactured in industry. Do you agree?
No doubt, modern farming requires more inputs than traditional farming. These are:
- chemical fertilizers
- pump sets
- farm machinery
- HYV seeds
- water supply
Most of these inputs like fertilizers, tools, and implements are manufactured in industry. HYV seeds are developed in agriculture research laboratories. Machine industry provides various kinds of implements, irrigation pumps, and farming machinery to improve productivity and minimize farming efforts. Chemical and soil engineering-based industries provide fertilizers and pesticides to boost agriculture. Water supply is done by canals and tanks. Electricity is supplied by powerhouses.
How did the spread of electricity help farmers in Palampur?
The spread of electricity helped the farmers in Palampur in the following ways:
- Most of the houses have electricity connections.
- It is used to run tubewells in the fields.
- It is used in various types of small businesses.
Is it important to increase the area under irrigation? Why?
Irrigation facilities are available only to about 40% of the cultivated land area in the country. The rest of the land, i.e., 60% of the cultivated area, is still dependent on rainfall for irrigation. It means that the benefit of multiple cropping cannot be achieved by 60% of the farmers in the country. They produce less and so their income is also low. Thus, they live in poverty.
Therefore, if these farmers are to be brought out of poverty, farm productivity has to increase. This is only possible when they use modern farming methods and dependable irrigation facilities. Hence, it is important to increase the area under irrigation.
Why are the wages for farm labourers in Palampur less than minimum wages?
A waged labourer might be employed on a daily basis, or for one particular farm activity like harvesting, or for the whole year. Most small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital. They borrow from large farmers or the village moneylenders or the traders who supply various inputs for cultivation. The rate of interest on such loans is very high. They are put to great distress to repay the loan. Hence they pay very low wages to the farm labourers.
What are the different ways of increasing production on the same piece of land? Use examples to Explain.
To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping. It is the most common way of increasing production on a given piece of land. All farmers in Palampur grow at least two main crops; many are growing potato as the third crop in the past fifteen to twenty years.
How do the medium and large farmers obtain capital for farming? How is it different from the small farmers?
In contrast to the small farmers, the medium and large farmers have their own savings from farming. They are thus able to arrange for the capital needed.
On what terms did Savita get a loan from Tajpal Singh? Would Savita’s condition be different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest?
Savita was a small farmer. She planed to cultivate wheat on her 1-hectare land. Besides seeds, fertilizers and pesticides, she needed cash to buy water and repair her farm instruments. She estimated that his working capital itself would cost a minimum of Rs 3,000. She didn’t have the money, so she decided to borrow from Tejpal Singh, a large farmer. Tejpal Singh agreed to give Savita the loan at an interest rate of 24 percent for four months, which was a very high-interest rate.
Savita also had to promise to work on his field as a farm labourer during the harvest season at Rs 35 per day. Savita knew that this wage is quite low and she will have to work very hard to complete harvesting on her own field, and then work as a farm labourer for Tejpal Singh. Savita agreed to those tough conditions, as she knew, that getting a loan is difficult for a small farmer. Yes, Savita’s condition would have been different if she could get a loan from the bank at a low rate of interest.
What can be done so that more non-farm production activities can be started in villages?
The villagers must be made aware of the non-farm production activities and their benefits. They must also be taught the methods of doing such activities. The villagers who have the impression that they can earn only by farming, must be given proper guidance and help to do such activities.
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Important Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions
What are the factors of production?
The essential inputs which are required for the production of goods and services are known as factors of production. For example, for the production of cloth, cotton-machine, labour and technology is required.
Name the main production activity of Palampur.
What capital is needed as first priority to set up a jaggery manufacturing unit?
Give a few examples of fixed capital.
Tools, machines and building.
Name any one item of working capital.
Give an example of an entity which is not a part of fixed capital.
Give two examples of the working capital.
- Raw materials,
- Money in hand.
What do raw materials and money in hand call?
The working capital.
The clay used by a potter is an example of which type of capital?
Why is it important to use land very carefully?
Land is a natural resource, once destroyed it is very difficult to restore it.
What are rabi crops?
The crops which are grown in the winter season i.e., November or December and harvested in summer i.e., April or May. For example, wheat.
What are kharif crops?
The crops which are grown in the rainy season i.e., June or July and harvested in October or November. For example, rice.
Farmer’s plough is an example of which factors of production?
Which is the most abundant factor of production?
What is physical capital?
Physical capital includes variety of inputs required at every stage during production like machines, raw material etc.
What are different categories of physical capital?
- Fixed capital,
- Working capital.
Categorise the following as fixed capital or working capital:
(i) Cotton — Working capital,
(ii) Machine — Fixed capital.
Which term is used for production for self-consumption?
Enumerate a few effects of modem farming method.
Soil degradation, reduced water table below the ground and water pollution.
Mention any two natural factors of production.
Land, forests, water, minerals etc.
What is a market?
It is a place where goods and services can be sold.
Crop produced on a given piece of land during a single season.
Who provides capital to the small farmers at high rate of interest?
Large farmers, village moneylender or the traders.
What does HYV stand for?
High Yielding Varieties (HYV).
“The yield of food grains hectare is high in Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh”. Give two reasons. HOTS
- Use of HYV seeds.
- Use of tubewells for irrigation.
Which are the prime requirement for production of goods and services?
Write down the names of the crops that were promoted by Green Revolution.
Cultivation of wheat and rice.
During which season do farmers of Palampur grow jo war and bajra?
At present, what is the percentage of the people who are engaged in the rural areas in non-farming activities in India?
What is the basic constraint in raising farm production?
The basic constraint in raising farm productions land which is a fixed factor of production.
What is Green Revolution? HOTS
The great increase in the production of food grains in our country during the last 40 years, due to use of high yielding variety (HYV) of seeds, and other inputs is known as the Green Revolution.
What was production of pulses and wheat in 2010-11?
Pulses – 18 MT, Wheat – 86 MT.
Mention any two non-farm activities.
Dairy and transport.
Name any two states which benefited from the Green Revolution.
Mention any two factors responsible for the low yield of foodgrains in India.
- Old technology,
- Small land holdings.
Which of the following is not used in modem farming?
Which is the best way to expand non-farm activities in a village?
Better transportation, availability of loan at low interest, availability of markets where goods can be sold are the best way to expand non-farming activities.
In which period is the cultivation of potato done?
October to December.
In which type of activity is dairy farming included?
Which state in India has the highest consumption of chemical fertilizers?
Scientific reports indicate that the modem farming methods have overused the land. Explain by giving examples.
- The soil is losing fertility due to increased use of chemical fertilizers,
- The continuous use of groundwater from tubewell irrigation has reduced the water table.
What is multiple cropping?
To grow more than one crop on a piece of land during the year is known as multiple cropping.
Name any two methods to increase production in agriculture.
- By using HYV seeds,
- By irrigation.
Which capital is known as working capital?
Raw materials and money in hand are called the working capital.
Which is the most important economic activity of the people of rural India?
Mention the standard unit for measuring the area of land.
“Many people belonging to SCs (dalits) are discriminated in village.” Justify giving a reason.
SCs live in one corner of the village and in much smaller houses.
What is production? Give an example.
Production is the creation of value in a commodity. For example, manufacturing of a car from steel.
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Important Questions Short Answer Type Questions
Define the meaning and aim of production.
Production is the creation of value in a commodity, e.g., manufacturing of a car from steel.
Aim: The aim of production is to produce the goods and services that we want. There are four requirements for production of goods and services: Land, labour, physical capital and human capital.
Mention three characteristics of traditional method of farming,
- Traditional seeds with low yield were used.
- Cow-dung and natural manures were used.
- Less irrigation was required.
Explain the problems which arise due to unequal distribution of land.
- Economic Inequality: Unequal distribution of land leads to economic inequality.
- Unemployment: It leads to unemployment.
- Poverty and Hunger: Lack of economic opportunities leads to poverty and hunger.
Describe the role of human capital in the production process. Name two investment that can improve the quality of human capital.
- Human capital can be built only in the long run through education and training.
- Human capital includes competent and trained people who put together land, capital and other factors of production to produce goods.
Farmers of which two states were the first to use modem farming methods in India? Mention any four positive effects of it. MOTS
(i) The farmers of Punjab, Haryana and Western Uttar Pradesh were the first to use modem farming methods in India.
(ii) (a) Modern farming methods increased the productivity of land.
(b) It increases foodgrain production in the country.
(c) It brought the Green Revolution in the 1960s which resulted in high increase in the production of cereal grains, particularly, wheat and rice.
(d) It has played a very important role in food security.
(e) It has led to growth of agro-based industries.
Write any three differences between land and capital.
|(i) It is a fixed factor of production.||It is a man-made factor of production.|
|(ii) It is a free gift of nature.||It is a man-made source of production.|
|(iii) Land varies in fertility.||It is of two types, i.e., fixed and working capital.|
‘Capital is a basic need in agriculture.’ How is it arranged by Indian farmers? Explain.
- Most of the small farmers borrow money from the moneylenders or traders to arrange the capital.
- The moneylenders and traders charge a high rate of interest from the farmers.
- Medium and large farmers have their own savings from the farming.
- They also get loans from the banks.
What problems do farm labourers face in terms of unemployment? Explain any three problems. HOTS
Problems of Farm Labourers:
- They come either from landless families or families cultivating small plots of land.
- They do not have a right over the crops grown on the land.
- They got wages in cash or in kind.
- Wages vary widely from region to region and from crop-to-crop etc.
- Wide variation in the duration of employment was also seen, (any three)
Mention any four characteristics of an entrepreneur or human capital as a factor of production.
- It is a factor of production which combines or arranges all the factors of production to produce.
- It is an active factor of production.
- It produces goods and services for self-consumption or to sell in the market.
- It is the most important factor of production.
How do small farmers obtain capital for farming? What is its consequence? Explain.
Most small farmers have to borrow money to arrange for the capital. They borrow from large farmers or the moneylenders or the traders whd supply various inputs for cultivation.
The rate of interest on such loans is very high. The small farmers are put to great distress to repay the loan.
Describe any three features of small-scale manufacturing as a non-farm activity in Palampur.
- Less than 50 people are engaged in manufacturing in Palampur.
- Manufacturing in Palampur involves very simple production methods and are done on a small-scale.
- Manufacturing activities are carried out mostly at home or in the fields with the help of family labour. Labourers are hired rarely.
How do the medium and large farmers make their own savings and how do they utilize it? Explain.
The medium and large farmers have surplus production even after keeping a substantial part for their own family needs. They sell it in the market and have good earnings and save it in their bank accounts. They utilize their savings:
- By lending to small farmers who are in need of a loan.
- As working capital for farming in the next season.
- As fixed capital for buying tractors etc.
What factors have led to the reduction of water level in Palampur?
- Continuous use of groundwater for tubewell irrigation has reduced the water table below the ground.
- While environmental resources like soil fertility and groundwater are built-up over many years. So, once destroyed, it is very difficult to restore them.
- Misuse of groundwater is another important factor for lowering of water table.
Describe any three sources of irrigation in Palampur.
- Persian wheel is the main source of irrigation in Palampur.
- Well is also a source of irrigation.
- Tubewells are also important sources of irrigation. These are run by electric supply.
State any two features of modem farming method.
Its main features were:
- Use of tube wells for irrigation.
- Use of HYV seeds.
- Chemical fertilizers.
- Farm machinery such as tractors, threshers, etc. (any two)
Explain any two differences between physical capital and human capital.
- Physical capital has variety of inputs while human capital is labours, using those inputs.
- Physical captial includes tools, machines can be used over the years while human capital can produce output only it they have experience.
What is modem farming methods? Explain its drawbacks.
It is a scientific way of increasing the production. Under this, production is increased by using HYV seeds and other inputs.
- It is used by rich farmers as it requires more inputs.
- Loss of soil fertility due to increased use of chemical fertilizers.
- Continuous use of groundwater for tubewell irrigation has reduced the water table below the ground.
Describe the role of the farmers after the crops are harvested and production is complete.
Role of the Farmer:
- The farmers retain a part of the crop for their family consumption and sell the surplus in the market.
- The small farmers grow the crops just to fulfil the needs of the family. So, they do not have any surplus to sell in the market.
- The big farmers make big earnings by selling main crops in the market.
- They sell the crops and earn huge profit on them.
How many crops are grown by the farmers in Palampur? How are they able to grow these different crops in a year?
(i) The farmers in Palampur grow jowar and bajra during the rainy season, potato between October and December and wheat in the winter season.
(ii) (a) There is the well-developed system of irrigation in Palampur that enables the farmers there to grow three different crops in a year.
(b) Electricity came early to Palampur. Its major impact was to transform the system of irrigation in the village.
(c) By mid-1970s, the entire area of 200 hectares was irrigated.
(d) Modern farming methods and the Green Revolution introduced HYV seeds.
Why was the initial impact of Green Revolution limited to wheat and only to a few regions?
- It was limited to wheat because HYV seeds were available only for wheat.
- Its impact was limited only to few regions as the HYV seeds need higher inputs which only the rich farmers can afford.
- HYV seeds need assured means of irrigation which were available only in northern parts of India.
How are traditional seeds different from HYV seeds?
|HYV Seeds||Traditional Seeds|
|(i) HYV seeds produce more output per hectare.||Traditional seeds produce less output per hectare.|
|(ii) HYV seeds need irrigation.||Traditional seeds needed less irrigation|
|(iii) HYV seeds need modem inputs like fertilizers, pesticides etc.||Traditional seeds needed inputs which were readily available with the farmers who did not have to buy these from the market.|
“Most of our villages have good infrastructure.” Justify. VSQ
- Most of the villages are well connected with other neighboring villages or town through all weathered roads.
- Most of the Indian villages have primary schools, health centers etc.
- Many kinds of means of transport are available like motorcycles, jeeps, tractors, tongas etc.
Why do people migrate? Explain.
People migrate from one region to another:
- In search of better jobs.
- For better living conditions.
- For higher education.
The Story of Village Palampur Class 9 Important Questions Long Answer Type Questions
Explain the meaning of ‘Physical Capital’. Explain its two types with the help of suitable examples.
What is physical capital? What are its different types?
Physical capital is the variety of inputs required at every stage during production. Its two different types are as follows:
(i) Fixed Capital: It can be used in production over many years. For example, tools, generator, turbines, buildings, computers etc.
(ii) Worldng Capital: Raw materials and money in hand are called Working Capital. Production requires a variety of raw material such as yarn used by the weaver and clay used by the potter. Some money is always required during production to make payments and buy other necessary items.
What is land? Suggest any three ways to sustain land.
(i) Land is the basic natural, resource required as a factor or an input in any production activity. Various activities or human activities take place on land which is a fixed asset.
(ii) (a) Land is a free gift of nature. So, it is necessary that we should be very careful in its use. We must avoid pollution of land.
(b) Soil is a vital part of land and the basis of agricultural activities. So, it becomes necessary that we should use bio-compost and eco-friendly methods in place of using chemical fertilizers and pesticides.
(c) We have to see that the Modern Farming Methods are used scientifically in such a way that the natural resource base that the land provides is saved from further damage.
(d) Some farming practices can, if used carefully and judiciously, certainly help in making land sustainable. Such practices include intensity of cropping, rotation of crops, multiple cropping, fallowing etc.
(e) We should give encouragement to community agriculture system or cooperative farming, instead of individual farming which is often exploitative. This could be another sustaining land productivity.
How do large farmers utilise surplus farm products to arrange for the capital needed for farming?
- The large farmers generally sell the surplus farm products and have good earnings.
- They put most of their earnings or money in their bank accounts and get adequate interest on the same.
- A part of their earnings is saved and kept to arrange for the working capital for farming in the next season.
- They also use savings for lending to small farmers and other persons in the village.
- A part of their earnings is used to increase their fixed capital like tractor, thresher, cattle etc.
Distinguish between Fixed, Working and Human Capital.
|Fixed Capital||Working Capital||Human Capital|
|(i) Tools, machines, buildings etc. which can be used in production over many years is called fixed capital.||(ii) Fixed capital cannot be changed or built in short period of time.||Human capital includes competent and trained people who put together land, capital and other factors of production to produce goods.|
|The factors of production which are used up in the production process are known as working capital.||Working capital can be changed or built in short period.||Human capital can be built only in the long run through education and training.|
What is the difference between Rabi crops and Kharif crops? When are they sown and harvested? Mention some necessary conditions for multiple cropping.
- Kharif crops are grown in the rainy season. They are sown in June-July and harvested in October-November. Farmers in Palampur mainly grow jowar and bajra which are used as cattle feed.
- Rabi crops are grown in the winter season. They are sown in . October-November and harvested mainly in March-April. Wheat is the main crop grown in this season.
- Necessary Conditions for Multiple Cropping:
- Adequate irrigation facilities should be available on land.
- Farmers should also have sufficient capital to invest and meet farm expenses.
Explain the distribution of workforce engaged in non-farming activities in the rural areas. Suggest some measures to increase non-farming activities.
Explain any four efforts which can be made to increase non-farming production activities in villages.
25% of the total workforce is engaged in non-farming activities. Measures to Increase Non-farming Activities:
- Infrastructure: Infrastructure includes building of roads, establishing of banks and improving communication. All these are basic inputs for economic development.
- Expansion of Market: To increase non-farming activities, rural markets should be linked to urban markets.
- Education and Health: Improvement in education will lead to human capital formation.
- Cheap Loan: Non-farming activities can be promoted by providing cheap and affordable loan to the farmers.
State any five reasons as to why farm labourers are considered poor. –
- Farm labourers are generally landless.
- They have no permanent jobs. They have to look for work on daily basis.
- They are not even paid minimum wages. The minimum wages for a farm labourer set by the government is Rs 60 per day, but they get only?
- They have large family.
- They are illiterate, unhealthy and unskilled.
Why do modern farming methods require more capital? Explain.
- Modem farming methods need inputs like chemical fertilizers, pesticides, tractors etc. which are manufactured in industry. So, they require the farmer to start with more cash than before.
- In modem farming methods, HYV seeds are used which require more irrigation.
- In traditional method, the farmers use cow-dung as natural fertilizer, which they do not need to buy while chemical fertilizers need more cash to buy from the market.
- Modem farming is machine-oriented. Hence, farmers need more capital to purchase them.
- To operate the machines, semi-skilled or skilled manpower is required which need more investments.
State three reasons of the variation in the wages of farm laboures all over India.
There is a wide variation in the wages of farm laboures in the country. They generally get the wages less than the minimum wages set by the government. The reasons of the variation in the farm wages are as follows.:
- The farm labourers come either from landless families or the families cultivating small plots of land. They are poor and helpless. They work on daily wages. They regularly have to look for work. Since there is heavy competition for work among the farm labourers in the country, these labourers agree to work for less than the minimum wages.
- Most agricultural labourers are from low castes and the depressed classes. They have little courage to challenge the upper caste people.
- Farm labourers are generally illiterate and ignorant. They are not organised in unions. So, it is difficult for them to bargain with the landowners and secure good wages.
Explain the basic requirements for the production of goods and services. Which one is the most important?
(i) Land: Land is the most important factor of production. It is required for growing crops, building factories and infrastructure. The first requirement is land. We also need other natural resources such as water, forests, minerals etc.
(ii) Labour: The second requirement is labour, i.e., people who will do the work. Different production activities require different types of workers, such as highly educated, skilled or those doing some manual work. Each worker provides labour necessary for production.
(iii) Physical Capital: The third requirement is physical capital, comprising various inputs required during production. It has two components. Tools, machines and buildings fall under ‘fixed capital’.
They can be used in production for many years. Raw materials and money in hand are called working capital. These are used up in production.
(iv) Human Capital: The fourth requirement is the human capital. Knowledge and enterprise are needed to put together land, labour and physical capital in order to produce an output.
Define Green Revolution. How is Green Revolution different from traditional farming?
Large increase in agriculture production after 1967-68 due to the adoption of new agriculture strategy which implied a simultaneous use of better and modem agriculture inputs. Green Revolution involves the introduction of high yielding varieties of seeds. It also encompasses the use of fertilizers and irrigation techniques that increases the production and make countries like India self-sufficient in food grains. So, this technique is mainly used to improve the status of agriculture. It was brought in India by the initiative of Indian government. Dr. Norman Borlaug brought high yielding wheat in India. M.S. Swaminathan and his team also contributed towards the success of Green Revolution in India. Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are the main regions where Green Revolution was started.
Difference between Green Revolution and Traditional Farming: Green Revolution refers to the use of artificial fertilizers, technology, high yielding variety seeds which are genetically engineered. Traditional farming emphasises on the use of natural seeds and fertilizers.
- Till the mid-1960s, the seeds used in cultivation were traditional ones with relatively low yields.
- Traditional seeds needed less irrigation. Farmers used cow-dung and other natural manure as fertilizers.
- All these were readily available with the farmers who did not have to buy them.
- The Green Revolution in the late 1960s introduced the Indian farmer to cultivation of wheat and rice using High Yielding Varieties (HYVs) of seeds.
- Compared to the traditional seeds, the HYV seeds promised to produce much greater amounts of grain on a single plant. As a result the same piece of land would now produce far larger quantities of foodgrains than was possible earlier. HYV seeds, however, needed plenty.
Describe the significance of Green Revolution in Indian economy.
The Green Revolution has two types of effects on Indian economy, namely (i) economic effect’s and (ii) sociological effects.
(i) Economic Effects:
(a) Increase in Agricultural Production and Productivity:
Due to adoption of HYV technology the production of foodgrains increased considerably in the country. The production of wheat has increased from 8.8 million tones in 1965-66 to 184 million tons in 1991-92. The productivity of other food grains has increased considerably. It was 71% in case of cereals, 104% for i wheat and 52% for paddy over the period 1965-66 and 1989-90.
(b) Employment: The new agricultural technology has created more amounts of employment opportunities in the agricultural sector. The new technology is early maturing and makes multiple cropping possible.
(c) Market Orientation: The new technology has made the farmers market- oriented. Due to excess production the farmers have to go to the market for selling their surplus production.
(ii) Sociological Effects:
(a) Personal Inequalities: Due to Green Revolution the income of rich farmers increased considerably whereas the poor farmers couldn’t reap any benefit. This led to a class conflict between the rich and the poor farmers. The small and marginal farmers were deprived of enjoying the gains of new technology.
(b) Regional Inequality: The new technology was successfully implemented in the wheat-producing belt of the country whereas the rice producing zones were not at all affected by this Green Revolution. Hence, the disparity between the two regions increased considerably. Further Green Revolution became successful in irrigated areas whereas, in the rained belt the new technology couldn’t be properly implemented.
Where and why has the Green Revolution been started in India? Give advantages and disadvantages of the Green Revolution.
Green Revolution involves the introduction of high yielding varieties of seeds. It also encompasses the use of fertilizers and irrigation techniques that increases the production and make countries like India self-sufficient in foodgrains. So, this technique is mainly used to improve the status of agriculture. It was brought in India by the I initiative of Indian government. Dr. Norman Borlaug brought high yielding wheat in India.
M.S. Swaminathan and his team also contributed towards the success of Green Revolution in India. Punjab, Haryana and Uttar Pradesh are ; the main regions where green Revolution was started.
Advantages / Merits of Green Revolution:
- The HYV seeds produce much greater amount of grains in comparison to the normal seeds.
- It has increased the production on the same pieces of land which produces large quantities of food grains than it was produced earlier.
Disadvantages / Demerits of Green Revolution:
- Poor farmers are unable to afford HYV seeds, fertilizers and machineries.
- This may lead to an end with large debts.
- HYV seeds need more fertilizers and water and they are expensive.
- Since Green Revolution introduced new machineries, it led to the replacement of labour, and further leading to unemployment and rural-urban migration.
- It was limited to rice and wheat only.
प्रश्न 1. भारत में जनगणना के दौरान दस वर्ष में एक बार प्रत्येक गाँव का सर्वेक्षण किया जाता है। पालमपुर(Palampur) से संबंधित सूचनाओं के आधार पर निम्न तालिका को भरिये :
|(क) अवस्थिति क्षेत्र :||एक छोटा गाँव जो एक बड़े गाँव रायगंज और एक छोटे कस्बे शाहपुर से जुड़ा है।|
|(ख) गाँव का कुल क्षेत्र :||166 हेक्टेयर|
प्रश्न 3. पालमपुर में बिजली के प्रसार ने किसानों की किस प्रकार मदद की ?
उत्तर. पालमपुर में बिजली के प्रसार ने किसानों की निम्नलिखित प्रकार से मदद की :
- विद्युत प्रकाश, पंखे, प्रेस एवं मशीनों ने किसानों के घरेलू कार्यों में मदद की।
- सिंचाई की उपयुक्त विधि नलकूपों एवं पम्पिंग सेट को बिजली द्वारा चलाया जाता है।
- कृषि उपकरण , जैसे हार्वेस्टर , थ्रेशर आदि ने किसानों की सहायता की है।
- बिजली का उपयोग गाँव में प्रकाश के लिए भी किया गया।
प्रश्न 4. क्या सिंचित क्षेत्र को बढ़ाना महत्वपूर्ण है ? क्यों ?
उत्तर. सिंचित क्षेत्र को बढ़ाना अत्यंत महत्वपूर्ण है। इसके महत्व के कारण निम्नलिखित है :
- पौधों का जन्म , उनका विकास , फलना और फूलना मिट्टी , जल और हवा के कुशल संयोग पर निर्भर करता है।
- यदि सिंचाई की असुविधा के कारण जल प्राप्त नहीं होता तो फसल सुख जाएगी यदि लगातार जल की कमी रहे तो अकाल का भय हो जाता है।
- सिंचाई की सुविधा प्राप्त भूमि के टुकड़े में कृषि उत्पादन असिंचित भूमि के टुकड़े के उत्पादन से अधिक होता है।
- कृषि उत्पादन में वृद्धि के लिए सिंचित क्षेत्र महत्वपूर्ण ही नही बल्कि आवश्यक है।
प्रश्न 5. पालमपुर के 450 परिवारों में भूमि के वितरण की एक सारणी बनाइए।
उत्तर. पालमपुर गाँव के 450 परिवारों में भूमि के वितरण की सारणी :
|परिवार||भूमि का वितरण|
|150||भूमिहीन ( अधिकतर दलित वर्ग )|
|240||2 हेक्टेयर से कम के टुकड़े ( छोटे किसान )|
|60||2 हेक्टेयर से अधिक भूमि के टूकड़े (मध्यम और बड़े किसान)|
प्रश्न 6. पालमपुर में खेतिहर श्रमिकों की मजदूरी न्यूनतम मज़दूरी से कम क्यों है ?
उत्तर. पालमपुर में श्रमिकों की मज़दूरी न्यूनतम मज़दूरी से कम होने के निम्नलिखित कारण हैं :
- श्रमिकों की मज़दूरी , लाचारी और बेकारी उन्हें न्यूनतम से कम मज़दूरी स्वीकार करने के लिए विवश करती है।
- जमींदारों और बड़े किसानों द्वारा श्रमिकों का शोषण।
- आवश्यक मात्रा में रोजगार का उपलब्ध न होना।
- न्यूनतम मजदूरी अधिनियम का देहातों में लागू न किया जाना। यही कारण है कि गरीब मजदूर को जो कुछ भी मजदूरी दी जाती है उसे वह अपने भाग्य विधाता का वरदान समझकर कर लेता है।
प्रश्न 7. अपने क्षेत्र में दो श्रमिकों से बात कीजिए। खेतों में काम करने वाले या विनिर्माण कार्य में लगे मजदूरों में से किसी को चुने। उन्हें कितनी मज़दूरी मिलती है ? क्या उन्हें नकद पैसा मिलता है या वस्तु-रूप में ? क्या उन्हें नियमित रूप से काम मिलता है ? क्या वे कर्ज़ में है ?
उत्तर. खेतों में काम करने वाले मजदूरों की स्थिति:
खेतों में काम करने वाले श्रमिकों को लगभग 35 रुपये प्रतिदिन मज़दूरी प्राप्त होती है। मज़दूरी की राशि कुछ श्रमिकों को पूणरूप से नकद और कुछ को पूणरूप से अनाज के रूप एवं अन्य को दोनों पद्धतियों द्वारा अर्थात कुछ नकद और कुछ अनाज के रूप में प्रदान किया जाता है।
प्रश्न 8. एक ही भूमि पर उत्पादन बढ़ाने के अलग – अलग कौन – से तरीके हैं ? समझाने के लिए उदहारणों का प्रयोग कीजिए ।
उत्तर. भूमि के एक ही टुकड़े पर उत्पादन में वृद्धि के लिए निम्नलिखित तरीकों का अपनाया जाएगा –
- बहुविधि फसल उगाना (multiple cropping) एक ही भूमि के टुकड़े पर एक से अधिक फसल उगाना बहु फसल उगाना कहलाता है। यह निश्यच ही कुल उत्पादन में वृद्धि करता है।
- आधुनिक कृषि उपकरणों एवं तकनीकी का उपयोग – HYV बीजों, ट्रेक्टर, नलकूप, हार्वेस्टर, थ्रेशर, रासायनिक उउर्वरक, कीटनाशक का उपयोग एक ही भूमि के टुकड़े पर उत्पादन में वृद्धि करता है।
प्रश्न 9. एक हार्वेस्टर भूमि के मालिक किसान के कार्य का ब्यौरा दीजिये।
उत्तर. एक हेक्टयर भूमि की मात्रा एक परिवार की आवश्यकताओं को पूरा करने के लिए बहुत कम है। इसलिए उसके द्वारा अपने जीवन यापन के लिए किए गए कार्य का ब्योरा निम्नलिखित हो सकता है :
- खेतिहर मज़दूर के रूप में बड़े किसानों और जमींदारों के पास कार्य कर सकता है।
- अपने परिवार के सदस्यों को रोजगार के लिए शहरों में भेज सकता है।
- गाँव के धनी लोगों के पास नौकरी कर सकता है।
- गैर-कृषि कार्यों जैसे – पशुपालन, मछलीपालन और मुर्गीपालन आदि का कार्य कर सकता है
प्रश्न 10. मझोले और बड़े किसान कृषि से कैसे पूँजी प्राप्त करते हैं ? वे छोटे किसानों से कैसे भिन्न हैं?
उत्तर. बड़े एवं मध्यम किसानों की पूंजी की आवश्यकता उनके द्वारा की गई कृषि क्रियाओं द्वारा उत्पन्न अधिशेष से सूचित हो जाती है। वह वित्तिय रूप से सबल होते हैं। इसलिए उनके लिए सहकारी एवं ग्रामीण बैंकों से कर्ज़ प्राप्त करना आसान होता हैं। शहरों में कार्य करने वाले उनके परिवार के सदस्य भी उनकी वित्तीय सहायता करते हैं। छोटे किसान बड़े किसानों एवं साहूकारों से ऊँची ब्याज दर पर कर्ज़ प्राप्त करते हैं जो उन्हें ऋणग्रस्तता के चुंगल में फंसा देती है।
प्रश्न 11. सविता को किन शर्तों पर तेजपाल सिंह से ऋण मिला है। क्या ब्याज की कम दर पर बैंक से कर्ज़ मिलने पर सविता की स्थिति अलग होती ?
उत्तर. सविता निम्नलिखित दो शर्तों पर तेजपाल से ऋण प्राप्त करती है :
- तेजपाल सविता को 24 प्रतिशत ब्याज की दर से 4 महीने का कर्ज़ देता है जो ब्याज की बहुत ऊँची दर ह।
- सविता को यह भी वचन देना पड़ता है कि वह कटाई के मौसम में उसके खेतों में श्रमिक का रूप में 35 रुपये प्रतिदिन काम करेगी
प्रश्न 12. अपने क्षेत्र के कुछ पुराने निवासियों से बात कीजिए और पिछले 30 वर्षों में सिंचाई और उतपादन के तरीकों में हुए परिवर्तनों पर एक संक्षिप्त रिपोर्ट लिखिए।
उत्तर. अपने क्षेत्र के कुछ प्रतिष्ठित व्यक्तियों से बात करने के पश्चात सिंचाई के साधनों में विकास की प्रक्रिया का ज्ञान हुआ जो इस प्रकार है :
- प्राचीनकाल में सिंचाई के लिये कुंओं का इस्तेमाल किया जाता था।
- सिंचाई के लिए पानी की प्राप्ति रहट द्वारा की जाती थी।
- तालाब और नदी – नाले के पानी का उपयोग सिंचाई के लिए किया जाता था।
- स्वतंत्रता प्राप्ति के पश्चात सिंचाई की पद्धति में क्रांतिकारी परिवर्तन किए गए। इसके अनुसार पम्पिंग सेट और नलकूपों का उपयोग पर्याप्त मात्रा में सिंचाई के लिए किया जाने लगा।
प्रश्न 13. आपके क्षेत्र में कौन-से गैर-कृषि उत्पादन कार्य हो रहे हैं ? इनकी एक संक्षिप्त सूची बनाइए।
उत्तर. हमारे ग्रामीण क्षेत्रों में किये जाने वाले गैर – कृषि उत्पादन कार्य निम्नलिखित है :
- पशुपालन (Dairy), मुर्गीपालन (Poultry) और मछलीपालन आदि।
- कुछ शिक्षित लोगों द्वारा नर्सरी पाठशाला और प्राथमिक शिक्षा के लिए पाठशाला की स्थापना करना।
- गन्ने से गुड़ और चीनी तैयार किया जाना।
- खेतों में उत्पादित सब्जी, फलों का शहरी बाजारों में बेचा जाना।
- गाँव से दूर एकत्र करके शहरों में आपूर्ति करना।
- सिलाई, कड़ाई, प्रशिक्षण केन्द्र की स्थापना करना।
- शिक्षित लोगों को कंप्यूटर का प्रशिक्षण देना।
प्रश्न 14. गाँवो में और अधिक गैर – कृषि कार्य प्रारंभ करने के लिए निम्नलिखित उपाय किए जा सकते है ?
उत्तर. गाँव में और अधिक गैर कृषि कार्य शुरू करने के लिए निम्नलिखित उपाय किए जा सकते है :
- परिवहन का विकास करके गाँव और शहरों के बीच संकल्प और उत्तम सड़क बनवाकर गाँव से कृषि का अतिरिक्त उत्पादन शहरों में भेजा जा सकता है।
- इसी प्रकार शहरों से गाँव के लिए आवश्यक वस्तुएँ मँगाई जा सकती हैं।
- संचार के विकास द्वारा गाँव को देश और विदेश से जोड़ा जा सकता है।
- सरकार द्वारा गाँव में उद्योग – धंधे स्थापित किए जा सकते हैं।
- गाँव में रोजगार के अवसर में वृद्धि करनी चाहिए।
- ग्रामीण कल्याण योजनाएँ विकसित की जा सकती हैं।
- गाँव मे अच्छे पब्लिक स्कूल खोलकर गाँव वालों की शिक्षा के स्तर को ऊंचा किया जा सकता है।
पालमपुर गांव की कहानी अतिरिक्त प्रश्न और उत्तर
प्रश्न१. पालमपुर गांव की कहानी किसे इंगित करती है?
उत्तर: पालमपुर गांव की कहानी उत्पादन से संबंधित कुछ विचारों को इंगित करती है। जैसे पालमपुर का मुख्य क्रियाकलाप कृषि है यहां 75% लोग अपनी आजीविका के लिए कृषि पर निर्भर है। जबकि अन्य कई क्रियाएँ जैसे, लघु-स्तरीय विनिर्माण, डेयरी, परिवहन आदि सभी लगभग सीमित स्तर पर ही किए जाते हैं।
प्रश्न२. पालमपुर गांव में कौन-कौन सी सुविधाएं उपलब्ध है?
उत्तर: पालमपुर गांव में एक राज्य की प्राथमिक स्वास्थ्य केंद्र और एक निजी औषधालय स्थापित है। पालमपुर में शिक्षा के लिए एक हाईस्कूल और दो प्राथमिक विद्यालय भी है।
प्रश्न३. पालमपुर गांव में प्रमुख व्यवसाय कौन सा हैं?
उत्तर: पालमपुर गांव के लोगों का मुख्य पेशा ‘खेती’ है।
प्रश्न४. पालमपुर में गैर कृषि क्रियाएं कौन सी है?
उत्तर: कृषि का अर्थ होता है खेती करना, वही गैर कृषि क्रिया का अर्थ है वह क्रिया जिसमें कृषि सम्मिलित न हो। जैसे दूध बेचना, खनन कार्य और हस्तशिल्प आदि कार्य।
पालमपुर में गैर कृषि क्रियाएं हैं: हाथ से बनाई गई वस्तु को बेचना, टांगा चलाना और व्यापार करना आदि।