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Chapter 3 Constitutional Design NCERT Solutions for Class 9 Social Science Civics

Page 53

1. Here are some false statements. Identify the mistake in each case and rewrite these correctly based on what you have read in this chapter.
(a) Leaders of the freedom movement had an open mind about whether the country should be democratic or not after independence.
(b) Members of the Constituent Assembly of India held the same views on all provisions of the Constitution.
(c) A country that has a constitution must be a democracy.
(d) Constitution cannot be amended because it is the supreme law of a country.
(a) Leaders of the freedom movement had an open mind about the country being democratic after independence.

(b) Members of the Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open, and consensual manner to resolve differences among them.

(c) It is not necessary that a country having a constitution must be a democracy. The constitution of a country can even make provisions for dictatorship or monarchy. Examples: the Soviet Union and Pakistan.

(d) A Constitution can be amended to keep up with the changes in aspirations of the society. It can also be changed keeping in mind the social, political, and economic conditions of the country.

2. Which of these was the most salient underlying conflict in the making of a democratic constitution in South Africa?
(a) Between South Africa and its neighbours
(b) Between men and women
(c) Between the white majority and the black minority
(d) Between the coloured minority and the black majority
(c) Between the white majority and the black minority

3. Which of these is a provision that a democratic constitution does not have?
(a) Powers of the head of the state
(b) Name of the head of the state
(c) Powers of the legislature
(d) Name of the country
(b) Name of the head of the state

4. Match the following leaders with their roles in the making of the Constitution:

(a) Motilal Nehru
(b) Β.R. Ambedkar
(c) Rajendra Prasad
(d) Sarojini Naidu
(i) President of the Constituent Assembly
(ii) Member of the Constituent Assembly
(iii) Chairman of the Drafting Committee
(iv) Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928


(a) Motilal Nehru (iv) Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928
(b) B.R. Ambedkar (iii) Chairman of the Drafting Committee
(c) Rajendra Prasad (i) President of the Constituent Assembly
(d) Sarojini Naidu (ii) Member of the Constituent Assembly

5. Read again the extracts from Nehru’s speech ‘Tryst with Destiny’ and answer the following:
(a) Why did Nehru use the expression “not wholly or in full measure” in the first sentence?

(b) What pledge did he want the makers of the Indian Constitution to take?

(c) “The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye”. Who was he referring to?
(a) The expression ‘not wholly or in full measure’ in the first sentence was used by Nehru because he thought that the task they had undertaken was incomplete and it wasn’t possible to fulfill the pledges all at once but would be gradually fulfilled.

(b) The pledge that he wanted the makers of the Indian Constitution to take was to dedicate their lives to the service of India, Indians, and humanity at large.

(c) He was referring to Mahatma Gandhi.

6. Here are some of the guiding values of the Constitution and their meaning. Rewrite them by matching them correctly.

(a) Sovereign
(b) Republic
(c) Fraternity
(d) Secular
(i) Government will not favour any religion.
(ii) People have the supreme right to make decisions.
(iii) Head of the state is an elected person.
(iv) People should live like brothers and sisters.


(a) Sovereign
(b) Republic
(c) Fraternity
(d) Secular
(ii) People have the supreme right to make decisions.
(iii) Head of the state is an elected person.
(iv) People should live like brothers and sisters.
(i) Government will not favour any religion.

Page No: 54

7. A friend from Nepal has written you a letter describing the political exercises situation there. Many political parties are opposing the rule of the king. Some of them say that the existing constitution given by the monarch can be amended to allow more powers to elected representatives. Others are demanding a new Constituent Assembly to write a republican constitution. Reply to your friend giving your opinions on the subject.

Dear Yam,

I read your letter. These are exciting times indeed for you! My country has been independent for almost sixty years, and we have already gone through the whole process of the establishment of democracy. Fortunately, it has survived on this soil as well. I just hope the same happens in Nepal.

I find myself hoping that the demand for a new Constituent Assembly would take root in Nepal. A republican constitution has its benefits you know! In countries like yours and mine, there is already too much wastage in terms of government expenditure. Unfortunately, such is the reality of our national culture. In addition, if Nepal has a Constitutional Monarchy, a lot of money would have to be spent on maintaining the high standards of living for the royalty. UK has a Constitutional monarchy, but it can also afford it–centuries and centuries of colonial exploitation of other countries has its benefits! However, in my opinion, for countries like India and Nepal, a Republican government is best suited.

By all means, the Constitution offered by your king can hardly be called democratic! It hardly gives any powers to your Parliament or the civilian government or so I’ve heard. Nevertheless, whatever I might think as a foreigner, the people of Nepal will be the best judge of your country’s political future. Let’s see what happens.

P.S. – I have heard the Maoists are making some inroads in the rural heartland of Nepal? I don’t personally support violence of any kind and am a believer in democracy. However, the Maoists intrigue me to no limit. What is their attitude towards India? What do they think about the Chinese? Do let me know what you think.

Your Friend,


8. Here are different opinions about what made India a democracy. How much importance would you give to each of these factors?
(a) Democracy in India is a gift of the British rulers. We received training to work with representative legislative institutions under British rule.
(b) Freedom Struggle challenged the colonial exploitation and denial of different freedoms to Indians. Free India could not be anything but democratic.
(c) We were lucky to have leaders who had democratic convictions. The denial of democracy in several other newly independent countries shows the important role of these leaders.
(a) Though I would acknowledge many good things were learned from the British rulers and democracy being one of them,I wouldn’t say that democracy was a gift given by them. Indians had to struggle a lot and make many sacrifices to attain freedom from British rule. These circumstances helped people to gain experience and training in the working of the legislative institutions.

(b) Yes, Free India could not be anything but democratic because the people had already suffered a lot under British rule. This made them realise that for people to have a say in ruling the country, it was necessary to make India a democratic country.

(c) It is indeed true that we were lucky to have leaders who had deep democratic values. It is because of these ideals that India’s freedom struggle can be considered as the only example of a bloodless freedom struggle in contemporary history. Therefore, absence of such ideals has made many countries undemocratic.

9. Read the following extract from a conduct book for ‘married women’, published in 1912. ‘God has made the female species delicate and fragile both physically and emotionally, pitiably incapable of self-defence. They are destined thus by God to remain in male protection – of the father, husband, and son – all their lives. Women should, therefore, not despair, but feel obliged that they can dedicate themselves to the service of men’. Do you think the values expressed in this para reflected the values underlying our constitution? Or does this go against the constitutional values?
The given paragraph does not reflect the underlying value in our Constitution. It refers to the patriarchal views and endorses the thought of inequality in genders.

It goes against the constitutional values because in the paragraph women are shown as inferior, unequal as weak and fragile who should serve men. However, the Constitution has provided equal rights to women. They enjoy the right to vote, can take up any job, and are paid equal wages for the same work.

10. Read the following statements about a constitution. Give reasons why each of these is true or not true.
(a) The authority of the rules of the constitution is the same as that of any other law.
(b) Constitution lays down how different organs of the government will be formed.
(c) Rights of citizens and limits on the power of the government are laid down in the constitution.
(d) A constitution is about institutions, not about values.
(a) Not true. An ordinary law is passed by the Parliament and can be changed by it on its own will. On the other hand, the rules of the Constitution have greater authority and the Parliament has to abide by them. For amending these rules, a special procedure has to be adopted.

(b) True. The Constitution has laid down the framework for government formation. It has put in place the structure, power, and functions of the three organs of the government, i.e. executive, legislative, and the judiciary.

(c) True. The rights of the citizens are laid down in the Constitution as fundamental rights, which are enforceable by law. The powers and functions of the government are divided into the executive, legislative, and judiciary. It is done to keep each organ under check by the other organs to ensure the power functioning of the government.

(d) Not True. The Constitution is the supreme law of the country. It lays down the composition powers and functions of the various institutions of government. The Constitution is guided by values which are found in the form of Preamble. Principles and values such as equality, liberty, fraternity, brotherhood, secularism, and justice are included in the Preamble of the Constitution.

Constitutional Design Class 9 Important Questions Very Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Who was Nelson Mandela?
He was a nationalist leader of South Africa, who fought against racial discrimination.

Question 2.
What would have happened in South Africa if the black majority had decided to take revenge on the whites for all their oppression and exploitation?
Violence would have erupted in South Africa. Bloodshed would have taken place. A great loss of life and property would have taken place.

Question 3.
What is meant by Segregation?
All the public places like trains, buses, schools, hospitals, beaches etc. were separate for the whites and blacks. Even the churches were separate. The black people were forbidden from living in white areas. This is called Segregation.

Question 4.
Which type of tactics did the white racist government of South Africa use to continue to rule?
The white racist government continued to rule by detaining, torturing and killing thousands of black and coloured people.

Question 5.
What is apartheid?
It was a policy of racial segregation under which all people were classified and separated on the basis of race. Many restrictions were imposed on the Blacks, who formed mote than 80% of the population.

Question 6.
How many years of his life, Nelson Mandela spent in Jail?
28 years.

Question 7.
When was the new national flag of the Republic of South Africa hoisted for the first time?
At the midnight of 26 April, 1994.

Question 8.
Highlight any one similarity between the story of South African struggle for freedom and the Indian National Movement. HOTS
Both the movements were fighting against the whites of Europe who had come to these countries as trading companies.

Question 9.
“I have cherished the idea of a democratic Asid free society in which all persons live together in harmony and with equal
opportunities”. Who said these words and to which country did – he belong? HOTS

  • Nelson Mandela and
  •  South Africa.

Question 10.
Why is India called ‘a Republic’?
India is called a Republic because the head of the state i.e., the President is an elected person, and it is not a hereditary position.

Question 11.
What do you mean by political equality?
Every citizen is entitled to all the constitutional rights and freedom without making distinction of any kind like gender, race, status, religion etc. Equal voting right to all adult citizens of country, be it rich or poor with no discrimination comes under political equality.

Question 12.
What is meant by the term ‘Preamble’?
The Preamble is an introduction to the Constitution which contains the ideals and basic principles of the Indian Constitution.

Question 13.
Mention any one feature of a Foreign Constitution which inspired the constitution makers of the Indian Constitution.

  • Practice of parliamentary democracy in Britain.
  • Bill of rights in the United States.

Question 14.
Who was the President of Constituent Assembly?
Dr. Rajendra Prasad.

Question 15.
What was the main contribution of Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel just after independence?
He played very important role in integration of the Indian princely states.

Question 16.
Name any two prominent members of Constituent Assembly.

  • Rajendra Prasad
  • Baldev Singh.

Question 17.
With reference to the Constituent, Assembly, answer the following questions:
(i) When were its elections held?
(ii) Who was its President?
(iii) Who was appointed the Chairman of the Drafting Committee?
(iv) When was the Constitution passed by the Constituent Assembly?
(i) July 1946.
(ii) Dr. Rajendra Prasad.
(iii) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar.
(iv) 26th November, 1949.

Question 18.
What is the Constituent Assembly?
The drafting of the document called the Constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly.

Question 19.
What do we call a state where head of the state is an elected and not a hereditary person?
Republic, because the head of the state i.e., the President is an elected person, and it is not a hereditary position.

Constitutional Design Class 9 Important Questions Short Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
Explain the term Apartheid. What were its implications?
Apartheid was the name bf a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa.

  • White Europeans imposed this system on South Africa.
  • White rulers treated non-whites as inferiors.
  • Non-whites did not have right to vote. They were forbiadden to live in white areas. They were allowed to work there only with permit.
  • Trains, buses, hospitals, schools, cinemas, public places and public toilets were all separate for the whites and blacks.

Question 2.
“The apartheid system was particularly oppressive for the blacks.” Justify by giving three reasons.

  • They were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit.
  • Trains, buses, taxis, hotels, hospitals, schools and colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, were all separate for the whites and blacks. This was called segregation.
  • They could not even visit the churches where the whites worshipped. Blacks could not form associations or protest against the terrible treatment.

Question 3.
What problems existed in the making of the South African constitution? What compromises were made?

  • Problems existed because both the black majority and the white minority had their own fears and anxieties. The black majority wanted their constitution to be based on the democratic principle of majority rule. They also wanted substantial, social and economic rights.
  • The white minority, on the other hand, wanted to protect its privileges and property.
  • Ultimately both agreed to compromise. The whites agreed to the principle of majority rule and that of one person, one vote.

Question 4.
With reference to the Indian Constitution answer the following questions:
(i) When was it passed?
(ii) When was it enforced?.
(iii) Why was this date chosen?
(i) The Constitution was passed by the Constituent Assembly on 26th November, 1949.
(ii) The Constitution was enforced on 26th January, 1950.
(iii) In December, 1929, the Congress in its Lahore Session had decided to fight for Poorna Swaraj or Complete Independence, and 26th January, 1930 was celebrated as the Independence Day, since then. That is why our leaders decided to celebrate 26th January, 1950 as the day to enforce the Constitution of India.

Question 5.
Assess the Constitution made by the Constitution Assembly to form the Indian Constitution?
Assessing the Constitution as:

  • It worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner.
  • Basic principlesVwere decided. Drafting Committee prepared a draft.
  • Discussions of several rounds occurred clause by clause.
  • They worked for 114 days and spread over three years.
  • Every document was recorded and preserved to form twelve bulky volumes of Constituent Assembly debates.

Question 6.
“Indian Constitution adopted many institutional details and procedures from different countries.” Justify by giving examples. HOTS

  • India adopted the principle of liberty, freedom and justice from the French Constitution.
  • We have adopted bill of Rights from the United States of America.
  •  The practice of Parliamentary democracy has been adopted from Great Britain.

Question 7.
“The manner in which the Constituent Assembly worked gives sanctity to the constitution.” Justify. HOTS
First some basic principles were decided and agreed upon. Then a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prepared a draft constitution for discussion.
Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause.
The above-mentioned points prove that the Constituent Assembly maintained a democratic attitude.

Question 8.
“Indian Constitution is both rigid and flexible.” Explain.
The Indian Constitution is neither wholly rigid nor wholly flexible.
This is called rigid because some ideals in the constitution like equality, secularism, democracy, sovereignity etc. cannot be changed. This is because the rulers could not misuse their powers.

On the other hand, it is also called flexible because there is a provision for amendments. Some of the articles can be changed if the people demand so.

That is, there are some rules that can be amended by a simple majority while some need two-third majority. So. it is, called partly rigid and partly flexible.

Question 9.
Describe main features of Indian Constitution.
How has the Indian Constitution embodied the basic values into its instutional arrangements? Explain. V8Q

  • The Indian Constitution is a detailed document. It needs to be amended to keep it updated. It has provisions to incorporate changes from time-to-time. These changes are called constitutional amendments.
  • It lays down the procedure for choosing persons to govern the country.
  • It defines “who will have how much power to take a particular decisions’.
  • It also limits the powers of the government by providing some rights to the citizens which cannot be violated.

Question 10.
India is a “Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic Republic.” Justify.
Describe the main features of Preamble of the Indian Constitution.
The Constitution of India lays down certain Basic Features or the Basic Structure, which cannot be amended, altered or modified by any legitimate authority in India. The Constitution declares India to be a Sovereign, Socialist, Secular, Democratic, Republic. India is Sovereign, as it is independent of any foreign control. It is Socialist, as it aims at social and economic equality. It is Secular, as there is no State religion in India. It is Democratic, as the government is elected by the people directly after every five years. It is a Republic, because the Head of the State in India, namely, the President, is elected for five years by the r members of the Lok Sabha, Rajya Sabha and the State Legislative Assemblies.

Question 11.
Discuss the concept of equality under the objectives of the Indian Constitution.
The Preamble speaks of equality of status and opportunity Equality of status means all are equal in the eyes of law and all have equal protection of law. Nobody can be discriminated against only on the basis of his religion, caste, colour, creed or sex (Articles 14 and 15). The Constitution also offers equality of opportunity in matters relating to appointment under two states (Article 16). Untouchability has been abolished (Article 17) and all the titles except those of academic or military distinction have been abolished (Article 18).

Question 12.
What do you mean by Constitutional amendments? What is its importance? State their significance in a democratic country like India.
What provision has been made to incorporate changes in the Constitution and why?
A change in the Constitution made by the supreme legislative body in: the country is known as Constitutional amendment. In India, it is called the Parliament or “Sansad”.

  • Constitution can be changed according to needs and aspirations of the people.
  • Major shortcomings of the constitution can be removed.


  • India is a major democratic country and has a long and detailed Constitution.
  • Therefore, it needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated,
  • The makers of the Indian Constitution did not see it as sacred, static and unalterable law.
  • As a ‘Living Document’, it has to be in accordance with people’s aspirations and changes in society.

Constitutional Design Class 9 Important Questions Long Answer Type Questions

Question 1.
What is meant bythe Apartheid? How did the people of South Africa struggle against it?
Apartheid is the name of a system of social discriminatio’n unique to South Africa. It was the official policy of ill treatment of blacks followed by government of South Africa. The people of South Africa struggled against the apartheid in the following way:

  • Blacks and Indians were fighting against the apartheid, since 1950. The racial government did not pay any heed to them.
  • Marches and strikes were launched.
  • The struggle was led by the African National Congress.
  • Many of the sensitive whites also joined the struggle with the African National Congress.
  • Beside this many workers’ unions and the communist parties joined the movement.
  • As the struggle gained momentum, the government realized that the blacks could no longer be held under the oppression.
  • In continuation to this, discriminatory laws were annulled, bans from media lifted and Nelson Mandela walked out from the jail.
  • A new Constitution was formed on 26th April, 1994. The white racial government was overthrown by a multi-racial government.

Question 2.
Explain with five facts the transition from Apartheid to democracy and multi-racial government take place in South Africa.

  • After two years of discussion and debate leaders of South Africa came out with one of the finest Constitutions the world has ever had.
  • The new Constitution gave to its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country.
  • Together, they decided that in the search for a solution to the problems, nobody should be excluded, no one should be treated as a demon.
  • The leaders of the nation agreed that everybody should become part of the solution, whatever they might have done or represented in the past.
  • The apartheid government came to an end, paving way for the formation of a multi-racial government.

Question 3.
Explain the major factors which contributed to the making of our Constitution.

  • National Movement: Our national movement was not merely a struggle against a foreign rule. It was also a struggle to rejuvenate our country, and to transform our society and politics.
  • Role of Leaders: Leaders like Moti Lai Nehru, Jawahar Lai Nehru and others had played very important role in making of Indian Constitution. In 1928, Moti Lai Nehru Drafted a Constitution for India.
  • Role of British Rule: The familiarity with political institutions of colonial rule also helped develop an agreement over the institutional design.
  • British Rule and the Legislative Institutions: The experience gained by Indians in the working of the legislative institutions proved to be very useful for the country in setting up its own institutions.
  • World Event or Revolutions: Many of our leaders were inspired by the ideals of French Revolution, the practice of Parliamentary democracy in Britain and the Bill of Rights in USA. So they incorporated somfe good points of the Constitutions of these countries in the Indian Constitution.

Question 4.
“The making of the Constitution for huge and diverse country like India was not an easy affair.” Justify the statement. HOTS
Highlight any five difficult circumstances under which the Indian Constitution was drawn up.
“India’s Constitution was also drawn up under very difficult circumstances.” Elaborate this statement with the help of any four circumstances during it was made.
What were the difficulties faced during the making of Indian Constitution?

  • Making a Constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy task.
  • The-people of India at that time were emerging from the status of subjects to citizens.
  • The country was born through a partition on the basis of religious differences.
  • The British had left the piincely states to decide their future on their own.
  • At that time, future of the country did not look very secure.
  •  Makers of the Constitution had anxieties about the present as well as the future.

Question 5.
State the steps involved in the framing of Indian Constitution.
Mention the landmark years in the making of the Indian Constitution.

  • As per the Cabinet Mission Plan (1946), a Constitution-making body, called the Constituent Assembly, was formed. Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July, 1946.
  • The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner. It became a fully sovereign body.
  • First, Pandit Jawahar Lai Nehru moved in the Constituent Assembly the historic ‘Objectives Resolution’ which was unanimously passed. It was India’s ‘Charter of Freedom’. Then some basic principles were decided and agreed upon.
  • After passing of the Resolution, an Advisory Committee and various other committees were formed by the Constituent Assembly. The Drafting Committee, chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, prepared a ‘Draft Constitution’ for discussion.
  • Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause. The members considered carefully and debated all the clauses for 114 days, spread over nearly three years. All the proceedings and discussions in the Constituent Assembly have been recorded and preserved as what we call the ‘Constituent Assembly Debates’.
  • The Draft Constitution was passed or adopted by the Constituent Assembly on November 26, 1949. It came into force on January 26, 1950.

Question 6.
What was Mahatma Gandhi’s contribution to the Constitution of Indian?

  • Although Mahatma Gandhi was not a member of the Constituent Assembly, there were many members who followed his vision.
  • According to his magazine, Young India in 1931, he wanted to release India from all thralldom and patronage.
  • He emphasised on political equality.
  • He thought India as a country where the people of all communities would live in perfect harmony.
  • He wanted India where there could be no room for the curse of untouchability. Women would enjoy the same rights as men.

Question 7.
Describe any five salient features of the Constitution of India.
Salient Features:

  • Sovereign—People are masters and have supreme right to take decisions.
  • Socialist—Wealth to be shared equally.
  • Secular—It is based on the freedom of religion. All religions should be treated equally.
  • Democratic—People have political equality.
  • Republic—Head of the state is a common man elected by the people.

Question 8.
What is Constitution? What is its importance?
Why do countries need a Constitution? Explain.
Why do we need a Constitution and what do Constitution do? Explain?
The Constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all the people living together in a country. The Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among the people living in a territory (called citizens), and also the relationship between the people and the government.

  • Specifications: It specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have the power to take which decisions.
  • Trust and Co-ordination: It generates a degree of trust and co-ordination that is necessary for different kinds of people to live together.
  • Rights and Duties: It lays down the limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are.
  • Good Society: It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.

Question 9.
Express the basic ideas accepted by all leaders before the drafting of the Constitution.
Examine three basic guidelines agreed upon before the drafting of the Indian Co institution.
(i) Prior to framing of the Indian Constitution, our Constitution-makers had gone through the Constitutions of nearly 60 countries. They had also studied the various Acts passed by the British Government and the iesoiiK.ons adopted by the Congress Party. This study enabled the makers of the Constitution to select the best provisions from different sources but on our own terms.

(ii) Some of the main provisions of our Constitution and their original sources are given below:

                Provisions Sources
(a) The Parliamentary form of Government. The British Consitution (based on Conventions).
(b) The Charter of the Fundamental Rights. The US Constitution.
(c) Principles of Liberty, Equality and Fraternity. The French Constitution.
(d) The Concept of Social and Economic Equality. The Former USSR (now Russia); Socialist Revolution.
(e) The Directive Principles of State Policy. The Irish Constitution.

(iii) (a) This is to be noted that our Constitution-makers did not imitate what others had done. They selected and modified the contents according to India perspective.
(b) At each step, they also questioned or judged the legitimacy of various provisions.

Question 10.
Define the following terms mentioned in the preamble to the Constitution of India.
(i) Sovereign,
(ii) Socialist,
(iii) Secular,
(iv) Republic,
(v) Liberty,
(vi) Equality,
(vii) Fraternity
(viii), Justice.
Describe any five values / goals of the Indian Constitution included in the Preamble.
(i) Sovereign: People have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate the government of India.

(ii) Socialist: Wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society. Government should regulate the ownership of land and industry to reduce socio-economic inequalities.

(iii) Secular: Citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion. But there is no official religion. Government treats all religious beliefs and practices with equal respect.

(iv) Republic: The head of the state is an elected person and not a hereditary position.

(v) Liberty: There are no unreasonable restrictions on the citizens in what they think, how they wish to express their thoughts and the way they wish to follow up their thoughts in action.

(vi) Equality: All are equal before the law. The traditional social inequalities have to be ended. The government should ensure equal opportunity for all.

(vii) Fraternity: All of us should behave as if we are members of the same family. No one should treat a fellow citizen as inferior.

(viii) Justice: Citizens cannot be discriminated on the grounds of caste, religion and gender. Social inequalities have to be reduced. Government should work for the welfare of all, especially of the disadvantaged groups.

Question 11.
“The Constituent Assembly was the representative body of the people of India.” Explain with examples. HOTS

  • The Assembly was dominated by the Indian National Congress.
  • Many important political leaders were also its members. Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru, Dr. Rajendra Prasad, Sardar Vallabhbhai Patel, Maulana Abul Kalam Azad, Dr. Shyama Prasad Mukherjee, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, Mrs. Sarojini Naidu and Sardar Baldev Singh were its important members, who guided the discussion in the Constituent Assembly.
  • There were more than 30 members belonging to the Scheduled Caste.
  • Minorities like the Anglo-Indians had Frank Anthony as their representative.
  • The Parsee community was represented by H.P Modi. _
  • Some Constitutional experts like Alladi Krishna Swarny Aiyer, Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, and K.M. Munshi were also there.
  • Mrs. Sarojini Naidu and Mrs. Vijaya Lakshmi Pandit were the two leading women of India in the Constituent Assembly.
    Time: The members deliberated for 114 days spread over three years.

Question 12.
Why should we accept the Constitution made by the Constituent Assembly more than 60 years ago?

  • Constituent Assembly, a Galaxy of Indians: The Constituent Assembly represented the people of India. There was no universal adult franchise at that time, so it was elected mainly by the members of the existing Provincial Legislatures. This ensured a fair geographical share of members from all the regions of the country. The Assembly was dominated by the Indian National Congress but with leaders having different opinions. In social terms too, the Assembly represented members from different language groups, castes, classes, religions and occupations.
  • Elected Members: The drafting of the document called the Constitution was done by an assembly of elected representatives called the Constituent Assembly.
  • Working Pattern of the Assembly:
    • The Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner.
    • First some basic principles were decided, and agreed upon.
    • Then a Drafting Committee chaired by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar prepared a Draft Constitution for discussion.
    • Several rounds of thorough discussions took place on the Draft Constitution clause by clause.

Question 13.
Why did the Constitution-framers make provisions for amendments in the Indian Constitution? Give three reasons.

  • The Indian Constitution is a very long, detailed document. It was never considered as a static, sacred and unalterable law. It needed to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated.
  • Those who drafted the Indian Constitution felt that it had to be in accordance with people’s aspirations and changes in society.
  • Our Constitution-makers had great foresight. They were aware of the coming future needs of the fast changing Indian society. It was likely to experience many socio-economic changes in the coming years.
  • As such, they desired that the Indian Constitution should be able to adapt itself to the changing conditions or circumstances. So, they made provisions to incorporate changes from time to time. These changes are called the ‘Constitutional Amendments’. They provided a suitable amending procedure.
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