Course Content
Class 9th Math
0/81
Online Class For 9th Standard Students (CBSE) (English Medium)
About Lesson

Drainage Class 9 Notes Social Science Geography Chapter 3

In the previous 3 years’ examinations, significant importance has been given to the following topics from this chapter.

  • Drainage Patterns
  • Various River Basin System
  • Pollution of Rivers.

Drainage’ is a term signifying the river system of an area.

A drainage basin or river basin is an area w’hich is drained by a single river system.

An upland that separates two drainage systems that are next to each other is called a water divide.

On the basis of origin, there are two river systems of India — The Himalayan rivers and the Peninsular rivers.

Himalayan rivers are rainfed and snowfed, so they have w?ater in them throughout the year, i.e., they are perennial and thus navigable.

Himalayan rivers create meanders, oxbow lakes and other depositional features on their course.

Peninsular rivers are seasonal; mostly depending on rainfall and thus non-navigable.

Most of the rivers of peninsular India originate in the Western Ghats and flow’ towards the Bay of Bengal.

The Himalayan Rivers

A river along with its tributaries may be called a river system.

The major Himalayan rivers are the Indus, the Ganga, and the Brahmaputra.

The Indus River System

Rising near Lake Mansarovar in Tibet, the Indus enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir.

Rivers Satluj, Beas, Ravi, Chenab and Jhelum join Indus near Mithankot, Pakistan and flow southwards to fall into the Arabian Sea, east of Karachi.

With a total length of 2,900 km, the Indus is one of the longest rivers of the world.

The Ganga River System

The headwaters of the Ganga are called ‘Bhagirathi’.

Bhagirathi is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and joined by the Alaknanda at Devprayag.

Ganga meets the tributaries from the Himalayas such as Ghaghara, Gandak, Kosi and the Yamuna.

A major river Yamuna, arising from Yamunotri Glader in the Himalayas, joins Ganga at Allahabad.

Other tributaries — Chambal, Betwa and Son — come from Peninsular uplands to join Ganga.

Ganga is joined by the Brahmaputra and flows through Bangladesh to reach the Bay of Bengal.

The delta formed when the Ganga and the Brahmaputra flow into the Bay of Bengal is known as the Sunderban Delta.

The length of the Ganga is over 2,500 km and it develops large meanders.

The Brahmaputra River System

Originating in Tibet, very close to the sources of Indus and Satluj, Brahmaputra enters India in Arunachal Pradesh and flows to Assam, joined by many tributaries.

The tributaries that join the Brahmaputra are Dibang, Lohit, and Kenula.

The Brahmaputra has a braided channel in its entire length in Assam to form many riverine islands.

Unlike other north Indian rivers, the Brahmaputra is marked by huge deposits of silt on its bed, causing the riverbed to rise.

The Peninsular Rivers

The major rivers of the peninsula—Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna, and Kaveri—flow eastwards to drain into the Bay of Bengal.

The Thai and Narmada are the only rivers which flow west to make estuaries and drain into the Arabian Sea.

The drainage basins of the peninsular rivers are comparatively small in size.

The Godavari Basin

The Godavari begins in Nasik district of Maharashtra. It is the largest peninsular river.

Its large basin covers most parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa and Andhra Pradesh.

The tributaries which join the Godavari include Purna, Wardha, Pranhita, Manjra, Wainganga and Penganga.

Because of its length and the area, it covers, the Godavari is also known as the Dakshin Ganga.

The Godavari drains into the Bay of Bengal.

The Mahanadi Basin

The Mahanadi, a 860 km long river, rises in Chhattisgarh to flow through Orissa to reach the Bay of Bengal.

Principal tributaries of Mahanadi river are Sheonath, Jonk, Hasdeo, Mand, lb, Ong and Tel.

Mahanadi river basin is shared by Maharashtra, Orissa, Jharkhand and Chhattisgarh.

Is is one of the major east flowing peninsular rivers draining into Bay of Bengal.

The Krishna Basin

The 1,400 km long Krishna river rises from a spring in the Mahadev range near Mahabaleshwar and falls into the Bay of Bengal.

The tributaries of Krishna include Bhima, Musi, Ghatprabha, Koyana and Tungabhadra. The Krishna basin is shared by Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

The Narmada Basin

Rising in the Amarkantak Plateau of Maikala Range, Narmada flows to create a gorge in marble rocks of Madhya Pradesh.

Narmada flows towards the west in a rift valley formed due to faulting. •

Narmada river has 41 tributaries. The important ones are: Barna, Ganjal, Chhota Tawa, Hiran, Janatara, Kolar, Orsang, Sher.

The Tapi Basin

Originating in Betul, Madhya Pradesh, the Tapi flows through a basin that covers Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

The main west flowing rivers are Sabarmati, Mahi, Bharatpuzha and Periyar.

The entire Tapi basin can be divided into three sub-basins: upper, middle and lower and into two well- defined physical regions, viz, the hilly regions and the plains or Tapi Basin.

The Kaveri Basin

Originating in the Brahmagiri range of the Western Ghats, the Kaveri reaches the Bay of Bengal at Kaveripatnam, sharing its basin with Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Kerala and Puducherry or Pondicherry.

The main soil types found in the basin are red and yellow soils.

Lakes

Most lakes are permanent while others contain water only during the rainy season.

Some lakes are the result of the glacial action and ice sheets and some may have been formed by wind, river action and human activities.

A river meandering across a floodplain forms cut-offs that later develop into oxbow lakes.

Glacial lakes are formed when glaciers dig out a basin which is later filled with snowmelt.

Some lakes like Wular Lake in Jammu and Kashmir result from tectonic activity.

Apart from natural lakes, the damming of the rivers for the generation of hydel power has also led to the formation of lakes.

Lakes help to regulate river water flow, prevent flooding, aid to develop hydel power, moderate climate, maintain aquatic ecosystem, enhance natural beauty, develop tourism and provide recreation.

Role of Rivers in the Economy

Rivers are a natural source of water. It forms the main backbone for agriculture.

Settlements on the river banks have developed into cities.

Rivers are used for irrigation, navigation, hydropower generation, all vital for India, and agricultural economy.

River Pollution

Quality of river water is affected by the growing domestic, municipal, iftdustrial and agricultural demand.

A heavy load of untreated sewage and industrial effluents are emptied into the river affecting the river’s self-cleansing property.

Concern over rising pollution in our rivers led to the launching of various action plans to clean the rivers like Narmada Bachao Movement.


Drainage Systems in India

The Indian rivers are divided into two major groups:

  • The Himalayan rivers
  • The Peninsular rivers
The Himalayan rivers The Peninsular rivers
Most of the Himalayan rivers are perennial which means they have water throughout the year. Peninsular rivers are seasonal.
These rivers receive water from rain as well as from melted snow from high mountains. The flow of these rivers is dependent on rainfall.
Two major Himalayan rivers, the Indus and the Brahmaputra originate from the north of the mountain ranges. Most of the rivers of peninsular India originate in the Western Ghats and flow towards the Bay of Bengal.
The Himalayan rivers have long courses from their source to the sea. These rivers have shorter and shallower courses as compared to Himalayan rivers.

The Himalayan Rivers

The major Himalayan rivers are the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra. A river along with its tributaries may be called a river system.

1) The Indus River System

  • Indus is one of the longest rivers in the world with a total length of 2900 km.
  • The river Indus rises in Tibet, near Lake Mansarowar.
  • It enters India in the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir where it forms a picturesque gorge.
  • The Satluj, the Beas, the Ravi, the Chenab and the Jhelum join together to enter the Indus near Mithankot in Pakistan.

2) The Ganga River System

  • The source of the Ganga called the ‘Bhagirathi’ is fed by the Gangotri Glacier and joined by the Alaknanda at Devaprayag in Uttarakhand.
  • The Ganga emerges from the mountains to the plains at Haridwar.
  • The Ganga is joined by many tributaries from the Himalayas, a few of them being major rivers, such as the Yamuna, the Ghaghara, the Gandak and the Kosi.
  • The length of the Ganga is over 2500 km.

Farakka in West Bengal is the northernmost point of the Ganga delta where the Ganga river divides into 2 parts.

  1. The Bhagirathi-Hooghly flows southwards through the deltaic plains to the Bay of Bengal.
  2. The mainstream flows southwards into Bangladesh and is joined by the Brahmaputra. Further downstream, it is known as the Meghna. The Meghna River flows into the Bay of Bengal and form Sundarban Delta.

3) The Brahmaputra River System

  • The Brahmaputra rises in Tibet east of Mansarowar lake.
  • It is slightly longer than the Indus.
  • On reaching the Namcha Barwa (7757 m), it takes a ‘U’ turn and enters India in Arunachal Pradesh where it is called the Dihang.
  • Dihang is joined by the Dibang, the Lohit, and many other tributaries to form the Brahmaputra in Assam.

The Peninsular Rivers

The main water divide in Peninsular India is formed by the Western Ghats. Most of the major rivers of the Peninsula, such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri flow eastwards and drain into the Bay of Bengal. These rivers make deltas at their mouths. The Narmada and the Tapi are the only long rivers, which flow west and make estuaries.

1) The Narmada Basin

  • The Narmada rises in the Amarkantak hills in Madhya Pradesh.
  • The Narmada flows through a deep gorge at the ‘Marble rocks’ near Jabalpur.
  • At Dhuadhar falls the river jumps over steep rocks.
  • The Narmada basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat.

2) The Tapi Basin

  • The Tapi rises in the Satpura ranges, in the Betul district of Madhya Pradesh.
  • Its basin covers parts of Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.

3) The Godavari Basin

  • The Godavari is the largest Peninsular river. Its length is about 1500 km.
  • It rises from the slopes of the Western Ghats in the Nasik district of Maharashtra.
  • The basin covers parts of Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Odisha and Andhra Pradesh.
  • The Godavari is joined by a number of tributaries, such as the Purna, the Wardha, the Pranhita, the Manjra, the Wainganga and the Penganga.
  • Owing to its length and the area it covers, it is also known as the Dakshin Ganga.

4) The Mahanadi Basin

  • The Mahanadi rises in the highlands of Chhattisgarh.
  • The length of the river is about 860 km.
  • Its drainage basin is shared by Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, and Odisha.

5) The Krishna Basin

  • It rises from a spring near Mahabaleshwar.
  • The length of the river is about 1400 km.
  • Its drainage basin is shared by Maharashtra, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

6) The Kaveri Basin

  • The Kaveri rises in the Brahmagri range of the Western Ghats.
  • The total length of the river is about 760 km.
  • Its basin drains parts of Karnataka, Kerala and Tamil Nadu.

Besides these major rivers, there are some smaller rivers flowing towards the east. Some of them are:

  • The Damoder
  • The Brahmani
  • The Baitarni
  • The Subarnrekha

Lakes

India has many lakes. These lakes differ from each other in size and other characteristics.

  1. Most lakes are permanent
  2. Some contain water only during the rainy season
  3. Some lakes are the result of the action of glaciers and ice sheets
  4. Some have been formed by wind, river action and human activities

These lakes are attractive for tourists in places like Srinagar, Nainital. Different lakes are:

  • A meandering river across a floodplain forms cut-offs that later develops into ox-bow lakes.
  • Spits and bars form lagoons in the coastal areas. Eg: the Chilika lake, the Pulicat lake and the Kolleru lake.
  • Lakes in the region of inland drainage are sometimes seasonal. For example, the Sambhar Lake in Rajasthan is a salt water lake which is used for producing salt.
  • Most of the freshwater lakes are in the Himalayan region. They are of glacial origin. The Wular lake in Jammu and Kashmir is the result of tectonic activity which is the largest freshwater lake in India. Some other important freshwater lakes are Dal lake, Bhimtal, Nainital, Loktak and Barapani.

Importance of Lakes

Lakes are useful to human beings in many ways:

  1. Lakes help to regulate the flow of a river.
  2. During heavy rains, these lakes prevent flooding.
  3. During the dry season, these lakes help to maintain an even flow of water.
  4. Lakes can also be used for developing hydel power.
  5. Lakes moderate the surrounding climate, maintain the aquatic ecosystem, enhance natural beauty, and provide recreation.

Role of Rivers in the Economy

  • Rivers have been of fundamental importance throughout human history.
  • Water from rivers is a basic natural resource, essential for various human activities.
  • Rivers are used for irrigation, navigation, hydropower generation etc.

River Pollution

The growing domestic, municipal, industrial and agricultural demand for water from rivers is affecting the quality of water. Rivers are getting polluted as a heavy load of untreated sewage and industrial effluents are getting emptied into the rivers. Concern over rising river pollution led to the launching of various action plans to clean the rivers.

Exercise Files
No Attachment Found
No Attachment Found
Wisdom Academy