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### Exercise 8.1 Page: 146

1. The angles of quadrilateral are in the ratio 3 : 5 : 9 : 13. Find all the angles of the quadrilateral.

Solution:

Let the common ratio between the angles be = x.

We know that the sum of the interior angles of the quadrilateral = 360°

Now,

3x+5x+9x+13x = 360°

⇒ 30x = 360°

⇒ x = 12°

, Angles of the quadrilateral are:

3x = 3×12° = 36°

5x = 5×12° = 60°

9x = 9×12° = 108°

13x = 13×12° = 156°

2. If the diagonals of a parallelogram are equal, then show that it is a rectangle.

Solution:

Given that,

AC = BD

To show that, ABCD is a rectangle if the diagonals of a parallelogram are equal

To show ABCD is a rectangle we have to prove that one of its interior angles is right angled.

Proof,

BC = BA (Common)

AC = AD (Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal)

AC = BD (Given)

Therefore, ΔABC ≅ ΔBAD [SSS congruency]

∠A = ∠B [Corresponding parts of Congruent Triangles]

also,

∠A+∠B = 180° (Sum of the angles on the same side of the transversal)

⇒ 2∠A = 180°

⇒ ∠A = 90° = ∠B

, ABCD is a rectangle.

Hence Proved.

3. Show that if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other at right angles, then it is a rhombus.

Solution:

Let ABCD be a quadrilateral whose diagonals bisect each other at right angles.

Given that,

OA = OC

OB = OD

and ∠AOB = ∠BOC = ∠OCD = ∠ODA = 90°

To show that,

if the diagonals of a quadrilateral bisect each other at right angles, then it is a rhombus.

i.e., we have to prove that ABCD is parallelogram and AB = BC = CD = AD

Proof,

In ΔAOB and ΔCOB,

OA = OC (Given)

∠AOB = ∠COB (Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal)

OB = OB (Common)

Therefore, ΔAOB ≅ ΔCOB [SAS congruency]

Thus, AB = BC [CPCT]

Similarly we can prove,

BC = CD

, AB = BC = CD = AD

Opposites sides of a quadrilateral are equal hence ABCD is a parallelogram.

, ABCD is rhombus as it is a parallelogram whose diagonals intersect at right angle.

Hence Proved.

4. Show that the diagonals of a square are equal and bisect each other at right angles.

Solution:

Let ABCD be a square and its diagonals AC and BD intersect each other at O.

To show that,

AC = BD

AO = OC

and ∠AOB = 90°

Proof,

BC = BA (Common)

Thus,

AC = BD [CPCT]

diagonals are equal.

Now,

In ΔAOB and ΔCOD,

∠BAO = ∠DCO (Alternate interior angles)

∠AOB = ∠COD (Vertically opposite)

AB = CD (Given)

, ΔAOB ≅ ΔCOD [AAS congruency]

Thus,

AO = CO [CPCT].

, Diagonal bisect each other.

Now,

In ΔAOB and ΔCOB,

OB = OB (Given)

AO = CO (diagonals are bisected)

AB = CB (Sides of the square)

, ΔAOB ≅ ΔCOB [SSS congruency]

also, ∠AOB = ∠COB

∠AOB+∠COB = 180° (Linear pair)

Thus, ∠AOB = ∠COB = 90°

, Diagonals bisect each other at right angles

5. Show that if the diagonals of a quadrilateral are equal and bisect each other at right angles, then it is a square.

Solution:

Given that,

Let ABCD be a quadrilateral and its diagonals AC and BD bisect each other at right angle at O.

To prove that,

The Quadrilateral ABCD is a square.

Proof,

In ΔAOB and ΔCOD,

AO = CO (Diagonals bisect each other)

∠AOB = ∠COD (Vertically opposite)

OB = OD (Diagonals bisect each other)

, ΔAOB ≅ ΔCOD [SAS congruency]

Thus,

AB = CD [CPCT] — (i)

also,

∠OAB = ∠OCD (Alternate interior angles)

⇒ AB || CD

Now,

In ΔAOD and ΔCOD,

AO = CO (Diagonals bisect each other)

∠AOD = ∠COD (Vertically opposite)

OD = OD (Common)

, ΔAOD ≅ ΔCOD [SAS congruency]

Thus,

AD = CD [CPCT] — (ii)

also,

⇒ AD = BC = CD = AB — (ii)

and ∠ADC+∠BCD = 180° (co-interior angles)

One of the interior angles is right angle.

Thus, from (i), (ii) and (iii) given quadrilateral ABCD is a square.

Hence Proved.

6. Diagonal AC of a parallelogram ABCD bisects A (see Fig. 8.19). Show that

(i) it bisects C also,

(ii) ABCD is a rhombus.

Solution:

AD = CB (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

DC = BA (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

AC = CA (Common Side)

, ΔADC ≅ ΔCBA [SSS congruency]

Thus,

∠ACD = ∠CAB by CPCT

⇒ ∠ACD = ∠BCA

Thus,

AC bisects ∠C also.

(ii) ∠ACD = ∠CAD (Proved above)

⇒ AD = CD (Opposite sides of equal angles of a triangle are equal)

Also, AB = BC = CD = DA (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

Thus,

ABCD is a rhombus.

7. ABCD is a rhombus. Show that diagonal AC bisects A as well as C and diagonal BD bisects B as well as D.

Solution:

Given that,

ABCD is a rhombus.

AC and BD are its diagonals.

Proof,

AD = CD (Sides of a rhombus)

∠DAC = ∠DCA (Angles opposite of equal sides of a triangle are equal.)

also, AB || CD

⇒∠DAC = ∠BCA (Alternate interior angles)

⇒∠DCA = ∠BCA

, AC bisects ∠C.

Similarly,

We can prove that diagonal AC bisects ∠A.

Following the same method,

We can prove that the diagonal BD bisects ∠B and ∠D.

8. ABCD is a rectangle in which diagonal AC bisects A as well as C. Show that:

(i) ABCD is a square

(ii) Diagonal BD bisects B as well as D.

Solution:

(i) ∠DAC = ∠DCA (AC bisects ∠A as well as ∠C)

⇒ AD = CD (Sides opposite to equal angles of a triangle are equal)

also, CD = AB (Opposite sides of a rectangle)

,AB = BC = CD = AD

Thus, ABCD is a square.

(ii) In ΔBCD,

BC = CD

⇒ ∠CDB = ∠CBD (Angles opposite to equal sides are equal)

also, ∠CDB = ∠ABD (Alternate interior angles)

⇒ ∠CBD = ∠ABD

Thus, BD bisects ∠B

Now,

Thus, BD bisects ∠D

9. In parallelogram ABCD, two points P and Q are taken on diagonal BD such that DP = BQ (see Fig. 8.20). Show that:

(i) ΔAPD  ΔCQB

(ii) AP = CQ

(iii) ΔAQB  ΔCPD

(iv) AQ = CP

(v) APCQ is a parallelogram

Solution:

(i) In ΔAPD and ΔCQB,

DP = BQ (Given)

∠ADP = ∠CBQ (Alternate interior angles)

AD = BC (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

Thus, ΔAPD ≅ ΔCQB [SAS congruency]

(ii) AP = CQ by CPCT as ΔAPD ≅ ΔCQB.

(iii) In ΔAQB and ΔCPD,

BQ = DP (Given)

∠ABQ = ∠CDP (Alternate interior angles)

AB = CD (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

Thus, ΔAQB ≅ ΔCPD [SAS congruency]

(iv) As ΔAQB ≅ ΔCPD

AQ = CP [CPCT]

(v) From the questions (ii) and (iv), it is clear that APCQ has equal opposite sides and also has equal and opposite angles. , APCQ is a parallelogram.

10. ABCD is a parallelogram and AP and CQ are perpendiculars from vertices A and C on diagonal BD (see Fig. 8.21). Show that

(i) ΔAPB  ΔCQD

(ii) AP = CQ

Solution:

(i) In ΔAPB and ΔCQD,

∠ABP = ∠CDQ (Alternate interior angles)

∠APB = ∠CQD (= 90o as AP and CQ are perpendiculars)

AB = CD (ABCD is a parallelogram)

, ΔAPB ≅ ΔCQD [AAS congruency]

(ii) As ΔAPB ≅ ΔCQD.

, AP = CQ [CPCT]

11. In ΔABC and ΔDEF, AB = DE, AB || DE, BC = EF and BC || EF. Vertices A, B and C are joined to vertices D, E and F respectively (see Fig. 8.22).

Show that

(i) quadrilateral ABED is a parallelogram

(ii) quadrilateral BEFC is a parallelogram

(iv) quadrilateral ACFD is a parallelogram

(v) AC = DF

(vi) ΔABC ≅ ΔDEF.

Solution:

(i) AB = DE and AB || DE (Given)

Two opposite sides of a quadrilateral are equal and parallel to each other.

Thus, quadrilateral ABED is a parallelogram

(ii) Again BC = EF and BC || EF.

Thus, quadrilateral BEFC is a parallelogram.

(iii) Since ABED and BEFC are parallelograms.

⇒ AD = BE and BE = CF (Opposite sides of a parallelogram are equal)

Also, AD || BE and BE || CF (Opposite sides of a parallelogram are parallel)

(iv) AD and CF are opposite sides of quadrilateral ACFD which are equal and parallel to each other. Thus, it is a parallelogram.

(v) Since ACFD is a parallelogram

AC || DF and AC = DF

(vi) In ΔABC and ΔDEF,

AB = DE (Given)

BC = EF (Given)

AC = DF (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

, ΔABC ≅ ΔDEF [SSS congruency]

12. ABCD is a trapezium in which AB || CD and AD = BC (see Fig. 8.23). Show that

(i) A = B

(ii) C = D

diagonal AC = diagonal BD

[Hint : Extend AB and draw a line through C parallel to DA intersecting AB produced at E.]

Solution:

To Construct: Draw a line through C parallel to DA intersecting AB produced at E.

(i) CE = AD (Opposite sides of a parallelogram)

, BC = CE

⇒∠CBE = ∠CEB

also,

∠A+∠CBE = 180° (Angles on the same side of transversal and ∠CBE = ∠CEB)

∠B +∠CBE = 180° ( As Linear pair)

⇒∠A = ∠B

(ii) ∠A+∠D = ∠B+∠C = 180° (Angles on the same side of transversal)

⇒∠A+∠D = ∠A+∠C (∠A = ∠B)

⇒∠D = ∠C