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Constitutional Design Class 9 Notes Social Science Civics Chapter 3

The following topics from this chapter are being highlighted the most in the previous 3 year’s examinations and thereby hold significant importance.

  • Democratic Constitution in South Africa.
  • Making of the Indian Constitution

Democratic Constitution in South Africa

  • Nelson Mandela, the South African leader of African National Congress, fought a long battle against Apartheid.
  • Imprisoned for 28 years (1964-1992) emerged as the first President of the Republic of South Africa.
  • People struggled against the horrible discrimination practised against them by the white minority rulers.
  • Apartheid system began to fall apart in the 1980s. Finally; in 1994, the first free multiracial elections were held.
  • Remarkable constitution, forgot past sufferings, sought co-operation of all the races which made South Africa based on equality, democratic values and social justice.

Do We Need A Constitution?

  • Yes. A constitution has written laws accepted by people living together in a country.
  • It generates trust and coordination.
  • It specifies how a government should be constituted.
  • It lays down limits on the powers of the government.
  • It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.

Making of the Indian Constitution

  • From 1858 onwards, the British Government passed many Acts for the government of India but could not satisfy Indian aspiration.
  • The demand for a Constitution was first raised in 1934 by the Indian National Congress.
  • In 1938, Jawaharlal Nehru formulated the demand for a Constituent Assembly.
  • In 1942, the British Government recognized that Indians should frame a new Constitution by themselves.
  • Participation in Provincial Legislatures helped Indians in framing their Constitution.
  • The Leaders were inspired by the French Revolution, British Parliamentary System and the Bill of Rights of the US.
  • They also learnt what the British were denying Indian citizens.

The Constituent Assembly

  • Elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July 1946.
  • Dr B.R. Ambedkar was appointed Chairman of the Drafting Committee.
  • The Constitution was adopted on 26th November 1949, and enacted on 26th January 1950, when India became a Republic state.
  • The Constitution reflects the best minds of the country. The Constituent Assembly was called Mini- India.
  • Every law was debated clause by clause and a consensus arrived at.
  • It is the longest written Constitution in the world.
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