Course Content
Class 11 Physics Chapter 4 Motion In A Plane
4 Motion in a plane 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Scalars and vectors 4.3 Multiplication of vectors by real numbers 4.4 Addition and subtraction of vectors – graphical method 4.5 Resolution of vectors 4.6 Vector addition – analytical method 4.7 Motion in a plane 4.8 Motion in a plane with constant acceleration 4.9 Relative velocity in two dimensions 4.10 Projectile motion 4.11 Uniform circular motion
Class 11 Physics Chapter 5 Laws of motion
Section Name Topic Name 5 Laws of motion 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Aristotle’s fallacy 5.3 The law of inertia 5.4 Newton’s first law of motion 5.5 Newton’s second law of motion 5.6 Newton’s third law of motion 5.7 Conservation of momentum 5.8 Equilibrium of a particle 5.9 Common forces in mechanics 5.10 Circular motion 5.11 Solving problems in mechanics
Class 11 Physics Chapter 6 Work Energy and Power
Section Name Topic Name 6 Work Energy and power 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Notions of work and kinetic energy : The work-energy theorem 6.3 Work 6.4 Kinetic energy 6.5 Work done by a variable force 6.6 The work-energy theorem for a variable force 6.7 The concept of potential energy 6.8 The conservation of mechanical energy 6.9 The potential energy of a spring 6.10 Various forms of energy : the law of conservation of energy 6.11 Power 6.12 Collisions
Class 11 Physics Chapter 7 Rotation motion
Topics Introduction Centre of mass Motion of COM Linear Momentum of System of Particles Vector Product Angular velocity Torque & Angular Momentum Conservation of Angular Momentum Equilibrium of Rigid Body Centre of Gravity Moment of Inertia Theorem of perpendicular axis Theorem of parallel axis Moment of Inertia of Objects Kinematics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis Dynamics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis Angular Momentum In Case of Rotation about a Fixed Axis Rolling motion
Class 11 Physics Chapter 9 mechanics properties of solid
Section Name Topic Name 9 Mechanical Properties Of Solids 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Elastic behaviour of solids 9.3 Stress and strain 9.4 Hooke’s law 9.5 Stress-strain curve 9.6 Elastic moduli 9.7 Applications of elastic behaviour of materials
Class 11 Physics Chapter 11 Thermal Properties of matter
Section Name Topic Name 11 Thermal Properties of matter 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Temperature and heat 11.3 Measurement of temperature 11.4 Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature 11.5 Thermal expansion 11.6 Specific heat capacity 11.7 Calorimetry 11.8 Change of state 11.9 Heat transfer 11.10 Newton’s law of cooling
Class 11 Physics Chapter 14 Oscillations
Section Name Topic Name 14 Oscillations 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Periodic and oscilatory motions 14.3 Simple harmonic motion 14.4 Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion 14.5 Velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion 14.6 Force law for simple harmonic motion 14.7 Energy in simple harmonic motion 14.8 Some systems executing Simple Harmonic Motion 14.9 Damped simple harmonic motion 14.10 Forced oscillations and resonance
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About Lesson

Anomalous Behaviour of Water

  • Water shows some exceptional behaviour that is when it is heated at 0°C, it contracts instead of expandingand it happens till it reaches 4 °C. The volume of a given amount of water is minimumat 4 °C therefore its density is maximum(Refer the Fig). After 4 °C water starts expanding. Below 4 °C, the volume increases, and therefore the density decreases. This means water has maximum density at 4 °C.
  • Advantages of Anomalous behaviour of Water
  • Because of this property of water in lakes and ponds freeze only at the top layer and at the bottom it does not, butif the water freezes at the bottom also then animal and plant life would not be possible.
Thermal Properties of Matter

The information we get from the above graph means that the density increases as its temperature rises from 0°C to 4 °C and density decreases after 4°C.

By solving we get ΔV= 3l2Δl(we are neglecting (Δl)2 and (Δl)3as they are very small as to compared to l.

Therefore, Δ V = (3V Δl)/l


Which gives αv = 3αl the relation between coefficient of volume expansion and coefficient of linear expansion.

Thermal stress: ( Thermal Properties of Matter )

  • Mechanical stress induced by a body when some or all of its parts are not free to expand or contract in response to change in temperature.
  • When an object is heated or cooled either it expands or it contracts but if for some reason if the object is not allowed to expand to contract under that case mechanical stress is induced in the body which is known as Thermal Stress.
  • Example :-

While designing structures like concrete highways gaps are left which are filled by some flexible material so that concrete is allowed to expand or contract.

Heat Capacity ( Thermal Properties of Matter )

The change in temperature of a substance, when a given quantity of heat is absorbed or rejected by substance is characterised by a quantity called the heat capacity of that substance.

  • It is denoted by S.
  • It is given as S  = ΔQ/ ΔT

Where ΔQ = amount of heat supplied to the substance and T to T + ΔT change in its temperature.

Molar specific heat capacity: –

  • Heat capacity per mole of the substance is the defined as the amount of heat (in moles) absorbed or rejected(instead of mass m in kg) by the substance to change its temperature by one unit.

Mathematically can be written as:-

C = S/ μ= ΔQ / μ ΔT


  • μ= amount of substance in moles
  • C = molar specific heat capacity of the substance.
  • ΔQ = amount of heat absorbed or rejected by a substance.
  • ΔT = temperature change

 It depends on the nature of the substance and its temperature. The SI unit of molar specific heat capacity is Jmol–1 K–1

Molar specific heat capacity (Cp):-

  • If the gas is held under constant pressure during the heat transfer, then the corresponding molar specific heat capacity is called molar specific heat capacity at constant pressure (Cp).

Molar specific heat capacity (Cv):-

  • If the volume of the gas is maintained during the heat transfer, then the corresponding molar specific heat capacity is called molar specific heat capacity at constant volume (Cv).
  • Water has highest specific heat of capacity because of which it is used as a coolant in automobile radiators and in hot water bags.

Solution:- Mass of the metal, m = 0.20 kg = 200 g

Initial temperature of the metal, T1 = 150°C

Final temperature of the metal, T2 = 40°C

Calorimeter has water equivalent of mass, m’ = 0.025 kg = 25 g

Volume of water, V = 150 cm3

Mass (M) of water at temperature T = 27°C: 150 × 1 = 150 g

 Fall in the temperature of the metal:

ΔT = T1 – T2 = 150 – 40 = 110°C

Specific heat of water, Cw = 4.186 J/g/°K

Specific heat of the metal = C

Heat lost by the metal, θ = mCΔT … (i)

Rise in the temperature of the water and calorimeter system:

ΔT = 40 – 27 = 13°C

Heat gained by the water and calorimeter system:

Δθ’’ = m1 CwΔT’

= (M + m′) Cw ΔT’ … (ii)

Heat lost by the metal = Heat gained by the water and calorimeter system

mCΔT = (M + m’) Cw ΔT’

200 × C × 110 = (150 + 25) × 4.186 × 13

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