Course Content
Class 11 Physics Chapter 1 Physical World
Section Name Topic Name 1 Physical World 1.1 What is physics? 1.2 Scope and excitement of physics 1.3 Physics, technology and society 1.4 Fundamental forces in nature 1.5 Nature of physical laws
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 4 Motion In A Plane
4 Motion in a plane 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Scalars and vectors 4.3 Multiplication of vectors by real numbers 4.4 Addition and subtraction of vectors – graphical method 4.5 Resolution of vectors 4.6 Vector addition – analytical method 4.7 Motion in a plane 4.8 Motion in a plane with constant acceleration 4.9 Relative velocity in two dimensions 4.10 Projectile motion 4.11 Uniform circular motion
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 5 Laws of motion
Section Name Topic Name 5 Laws of motion 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Aristotle’s fallacy 5.3 The law of inertia 5.4 Newton’s first law of motion 5.5 Newton’s second law of motion 5.6 Newton’s third law of motion 5.7 Conservation of momentum 5.8 Equilibrium of a particle 5.9 Common forces in mechanics 5.10 Circular motion 5.11 Solving problems in mechanics
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 6 Work Energy and Power
Section Name Topic Name 6 Work Energy and power 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Notions of work and kinetic energy : The work-energy theorem 6.3 Work 6.4 Kinetic energy 6.5 Work done by a variable force 6.6 The work-energy theorem for a variable force 6.7 The concept of potential energy 6.8 The conservation of mechanical energy 6.9 The potential energy of a spring 6.10 Various forms of energy : the law of conservation of energy 6.11 Power 6.12 Collisions
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 7 Rotation motion
Topics Introduction Centre of mass Motion of COM Linear Momentum of System of Particles Vector Product Angular velocity Torque & Angular Momentum Conservation of Angular Momentum Equilibrium of Rigid Body Centre of Gravity Moment of Inertia Theorem of perpendicular axis Theorem of parallel axis Moment of Inertia of Objects Kinematics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis Dynamics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis Angular Momentum In Case of Rotation about a Fixed Axis Rolling motion
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 9 mechanics properties of solid
Section Name Topic Name 9 Mechanical Properties Of Solids 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Elastic behaviour of solids 9.3 Stress and strain 9.4 Hooke’s law 9.5 Stress-strain curve 9.6 Elastic moduli 9.7 Applications of elastic behaviour of materials
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 11 Thermal Properties of matter
Section Name Topic Name 11 Thermal Properties of matter 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Temperature and heat 11.3 Measurement of temperature 11.4 Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature 11.5 Thermal expansion 11.6 Specific heat capacity 11.7 Calorimetry 11.8 Change of state 11.9 Heat transfer 11.10 Newton’s law of cooling
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 14 Oscillations
Section Name Topic Name 14 Oscillations 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Periodic and oscilatory motions 14.3 Simple harmonic motion 14.4 Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion 14.5 Velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion 14.6 Force law for simple harmonic motion 14.7 Energy in simple harmonic motion 14.8 Some systems executing Simple Harmonic Motion 14.9 Damped simple harmonic motion 14.10 Forced oscillations and resonance
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About Lesson

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

  • Zeroth law of thermodynamics states that when two systems are in thermal equilibrium through a third system separately then they are in thermal equilibrium with each other also.
    • For eg: – Consider two systems A and B which are separated by an adiabatic wall. Heat flow happens between systems A and C, and between B and C, due to which all 3 systems attain thermal equilibrium.
Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics Notes and NCERT Solution
Thermodynamics Notes

Thermodynamic state variables

Thermodynamic state variables are the macroscopic quantities which determine the thermodynamic equilibrium state of a system.

  • These macroscopic quantities are known as thermodynamics state variables.
  • Since these macroscopic quantities describe the behaviour of thermodynamic system it is known as thermodynamic.
  • As they determine the state of the system that is pressure, volume and temperature, at one particular time they are known as thermodynamic state variables.
  • Pressures (P), Volume (V), Temperature (T), mass (m), Internal energy (U) are the thermodynamic state variables. 
  • These variables can tell us the position or the condition of any gas at that particular time. 
  • A system not in equilibrium cannot be described by state variables. It means the macroscopic variables are changing with time and they are not constant.
Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics Notes and NCERT Solution
Thermodynamics Notes

Types of thermodynamic state variables:-

  1. Extensive variables: – They indicate the size of the system, which means extensive variables are those that depend on the mass of the system or the number of particles in the system.  Example: volume, mass, internal energy. If we consider a system whose mass is greater than the size of that system is greater. All these depend on the size of the system.
  2. Intensive variables: –
  • They don’t depend on size of the system.
  • Pressure and Temperature are known as intensive variables.

Equation of State

  • Equation of State depicts the relationship between the state variables (pressure, mass, volume, density).
  • It describes about the state of the matter under given set of physical conditions.
  • Consider an ideal gas the equation of state is

PV= μRT where

  • P, V and T are state variables and   μ = number of moles
  • For a fixed amount of gas we can have two independent variables either volume and temperature or volume and pressure.
  • All the variables cannot be independent at the same time.
  • This is known equation of state for ideal gas.

Internal Energy

  • It is defined as the sum of kinetic energies and potential energies of the molecules constituting the system as a whole and not of individual molecule.
  • It is macroscopic variable of the system.
  • It is denoted by U.
  • It is thermodynamic state variable.
  • It is an extensive variable as it depends on the size of the system.
  • It can be specified by values of pressure, volume and temperature at that      particular time.
  • It only depends on the state of the system at that particular time.
Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics Notes and NCERT Solution
Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics Notes and NCERT Solution
Thermodynamics Notes

Work: – We can do some work on the system (in this case system is bottle with a balloon tied) as a result the internal energy of the system changes.

Internal energy increases when the system absorbs heat and some work is done on the system similarly internal energy decreases if we change the conditions.

How Internal energy is different from Work and Heat

  • Heat and work are not state variables unlike internal energy.
  • They are modes of energy transfer to system resulting in change in internal energy.
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