Course Content
Class 11 Physics Chapter 1 Physical World
Section Name Topic Name 1 Physical World 1.1 What is physics? 1.2 Scope and excitement of physics 1.3 Physics, technology and society 1.4 Fundamental forces in nature 1.5 Nature of physical laws
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 4 Motion In A Plane
4 Motion in a plane 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Scalars and vectors 4.3 Multiplication of vectors by real numbers 4.4 Addition and subtraction of vectors – graphical method 4.5 Resolution of vectors 4.6 Vector addition – analytical method 4.7 Motion in a plane 4.8 Motion in a plane with constant acceleration 4.9 Relative velocity in two dimensions 4.10 Projectile motion 4.11 Uniform circular motion
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 5 Laws of motion
Section Name Topic Name 5 Laws of motion 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Aristotle’s fallacy 5.3 The law of inertia 5.4 Newton’s first law of motion 5.5 Newton’s second law of motion 5.6 Newton’s third law of motion 5.7 Conservation of momentum 5.8 Equilibrium of a particle 5.9 Common forces in mechanics 5.10 Circular motion 5.11 Solving problems in mechanics
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 6 Work Energy and Power
Section Name Topic Name 6 Work Energy and power 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Notions of work and kinetic energy : The work-energy theorem 6.3 Work 6.4 Kinetic energy 6.5 Work done by a variable force 6.6 The work-energy theorem for a variable force 6.7 The concept of potential energy 6.8 The conservation of mechanical energy 6.9 The potential energy of a spring 6.10 Various forms of energy : the law of conservation of energy 6.11 Power 6.12 Collisions
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 7 Rotation motion
Topics Introduction Centre of mass Motion of COM Linear Momentum of System of Particles Vector Product Angular velocity Torque & Angular Momentum Conservation of Angular Momentum Equilibrium of Rigid Body Centre of Gravity Moment of Inertia Theorem of perpendicular axis Theorem of parallel axis Moment of Inertia of Objects Kinematics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis Dynamics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis Angular Momentum In Case of Rotation about a Fixed Axis Rolling motion
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 9 mechanics properties of solid
Section Name Topic Name 9 Mechanical Properties Of Solids 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Elastic behaviour of solids 9.3 Stress and strain 9.4 Hooke’s law 9.5 Stress-strain curve 9.6 Elastic moduli 9.7 Applications of elastic behaviour of materials
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 11 Thermal Properties of matter
Section Name Topic Name 11 Thermal Properties of matter 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Temperature and heat 11.3 Measurement of temperature 11.4 Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature 11.5 Thermal expansion 11.6 Specific heat capacity 11.7 Calorimetry 11.8 Change of state 11.9 Heat transfer 11.10 Newton’s law of cooling
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 14 Oscillations
Section Name Topic Name 14 Oscillations 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Periodic and oscilatory motions 14.3 Simple harmonic motion 14.4 Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion 14.5 Velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion 14.6 Force law for simple harmonic motion 14.7 Energy in simple harmonic motion 14.8 Some systems executing Simple Harmonic Motion 14.9 Damped simple harmonic motion 14.10 Forced oscillations and resonance
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Class 11th Physics Online Class For 100% Result
About Lesson

Ideal-gas Equation and Absolute Temperature

A thermometer that uses any gas, however, gives the same readings regardless of which gas is used because all gases have same expansion at low temperature.

Variables that describe the behaviour of gas are:-

  • Quantity(mass)
  • Pressure
  • Volume
  • Temperature i.e. (P,V,T) where (T = t + 273.15; t is the temperature in °C)

Gases which have low density obey certain laws: –

1.Boyle’s Law– PV = constant(when temperature T is constant)

2.Charles’ Law– V/T = constant (when pressure P is constant)

Thermal Properties of Matter
Thermal Properties of Matter

Problem:The triple points of neon and carbon dioxide are 24.57 K and 216.55 K respectively. Express these temperatures on the Celsius and Fahrenheit scales?

Solution: Celsius and Fahrenheit scales are related as

TF = (9/5)TC + 32   … (ii)

For neon:

 = 24.57 K

 = 24.57 – 273.15 = –248.58°C

TF = (9/5) TC + 32

 =9/5(-248.58) +32

=415.44 oF

For carbon dioxide:

 = 216.55 K

= 216.55 – 273.15 = –56.60°C

TF = (9/5)TC + 32

     =9/5(-56.60) +32

      = -69.88 oC

Problem:Two absolute scales A and B have triple points of water defined to be 200 A and 350 B. What is the relation between TA and TB?

Solution:

Triple point of water on absolute scale A, T1 = 200 A

Triple point of water on absolute scale B, T2 = 350 B

Triple point of water on Kelvin scale, Tk= 273.15 K

The temperature 273.15 K on Kelvin scale is equivalent to 200 A on absolute scale A.

T1 = Tk

200 A = 273.15 K

 Therefore,

A =   273.15/200

The temperature 273.15 K on Kelvin scale is equivalent to 350 B on absolute scale B.

T2 = Tk

350 B = 273.15

B=  273.15/350

TA is triple point of water on scale A. TB is triple point of water on scale B

Therefore,

Thermal Properties of Matter
Thermal Properties of Matter

Thermal Expansion

  • Thermal expansion is the phenomenon of increase in dimensions of a body due to increase in its temperature.

Examples of Thermal Expansion

  • The water is cold at the top of the lake because it expands and becomes less dense. So when this water freezes it insulates the water below it from the outside which means cold air is like a blanket. It is because of this property many fish can survive in the winter.

As we can see in the Image (a) molecules are very tightly packed but when heated the molecules start moving apart in random motion, which can be seen in Image (b).

  • When an object is cooled it contracts which is referred as negative thermal expansion.

Types of Thermal Expansion

  1. Linear Expansion :- The expansion in length
  2. Area Expansion :- The expansion in area
  3. Volume Expansion :- The expansion in volume

Linear Expansion

Linear Expansion means expansion in length due to increase in temperature. Linear expansion means fractional change in length i.e. how the length is changing with respect to original length.

  • It is denoted by αa
  • It is characteristic of the substance and it varies with temperature.
Thermal Properties of Matter
Thermal Properties of Matter

Coefficient of Volume can be defined as degree of volume expansion divided by change in temperature.

  • It is denoted by αv.
  • It is characteristic of the substance
  • It varies with temperature.

If graph is plotted between αv and temperature,then initially αv is a changing linearly then it varies non-linearly and at higher temperatures and then it becomes constant.

Coefficient of volume expansion of copper as a function of temperature-

Thermal Properties of Matter
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