Course Content
Class 11 Physics Chapter 1 Physical World
Section Name Topic Name 1 Physical World 1.1 What is physics? 1.2 Scope and excitement of physics 1.3 Physics, technology and society 1.4 Fundamental forces in nature 1.5 Nature of physical laws
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 2 Unit and Measurements
Unit and Measurements
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 3 Motion In A Straight Line
Section Name Topic Name 3 Motion in a Straight Line 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Position, path length and displacement 3.3 Average velocity and average speed 3.4 Instantaneous velocity and speed 3.5 Acceleration 3.6 Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion 3.7 Relative velocity
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 4 Motion In A Plane
4 Motion in a plane 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Scalars and vectors 4.3 Multiplication of vectors by real numbers 4.4 Addition and subtraction of vectors – graphical method 4.5 Resolution of vectors 4.6 Vector addition – analytical method 4.7 Motion in a plane 4.8 Motion in a plane with constant acceleration 4.9 Relative velocity in two dimensions 4.10 Projectile motion 4.11 Uniform circular motion
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 5 Laws of motion
Section Name Topic Name 5 Laws of motion 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Aristotle’s fallacy 5.3 The law of inertia 5.4 Newton’s first law of motion 5.5 Newton’s second law of motion 5.6 Newton’s third law of motion 5.7 Conservation of momentum 5.8 Equilibrium of a particle 5.9 Common forces in mechanics 5.10 Circular motion 5.11 Solving problems in mechanics
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 6 Work Energy and Power
Section Name Topic Name 6 Work Energy and power 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Notions of work and kinetic energy : The work-energy theorem 6.3 Work 6.4 Kinetic energy 6.5 Work done by a variable force 6.6 The work-energy theorem for a variable force 6.7 The concept of potential energy 6.8 The conservation of mechanical energy 6.9 The potential energy of a spring 6.10 Various forms of energy : the law of conservation of energy 6.11 Power 6.12 Collisions
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 7 Rotation motion
Topics Introduction Centre of mass Motion of COM Linear Momentum of System of Particles Vector Product Angular velocity Torque &amp; Angular Momentum Conservation of Angular Momentum Equilibrium of Rigid Body Centre of Gravity Moment of Inertia Theorem of perpendicular axis Theorem of parallel axis Moment of Inertia of Objects Kinematics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis Dynamics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis Angular Momentum In Case of Rotation about a Fixed Axis Rolling motion
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 8 Gravitation
Section Name Topic Name 8 Gravitation 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Kepler’s laws 8.3 Universal law of gravitation 8.4 The gravitational constant 8.5 Acceleration due to gravity of the earth 8.6 Acceleration due to gravity below and above the surface of earth 8.7 Gravitational potential energy 8.8 Escape speed 8.9 Earth satellite 8.10 Energy of an orbiting satellite 8.11 Geostationary and polar satellites 8.12 Weightlessness
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 9 mechanics properties of solid
Section Name Topic Name 9 Mechanical Properties Of Solids 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Elastic behaviour of solids 9.3 Stress and strain 9.4 Hooke’s law 9.5 Stress-strain curve 9.6 Elastic moduli 9.7 Applications of elastic behaviour of materials
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 10 Mechanical Properties of Fluids
Section Name Topic Name 10 Mechanical Properties Of Fluids 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Pressure 10.3 Streamline flow 10.4 Bernoulli’s principle 10.5 Viscosity 10.6 Reynolds number 10.7 Surface tension
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 11 Thermal Properties of matter
Section Name Topic Name 11 Thermal Properties of matter 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Temperature and heat 11.3 Measurement of temperature 11.4 Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature 11.5 Thermal expansion 11.6 Specific heat capacity 11.7 Calorimetry 11.8 Change of state 11.9 Heat transfer 11.10 Newton’s law of cooling
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics
Section Name Topic Name 12 Thermodynamics 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Thermal equilibrium 12.3 Zeroth law of thermodynamics 12.4 Heat, internal energy and work 12.5 First law of thermodynamics 12.6 Specific heat capacity 12.7 Thermodynamic state variables and equation of state 12.8 Thermodynamic processes 12.9 Heat engines 12.10 Refrigerators and heat pumps 12.11 Second law of thermodynamics 12.12 Reversible and irreversible processes 12.13 Carnot engine
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 13 Kinetic Theory
Section Name Topic Name 13 Kinetic Theory 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Molecular nature of matter 13.3 Behaviour of gases 13.4 Kinetic theory of an ideal gas 13.5 Law of equipartition of energy 13.6 Specific heat capacity 13.7 Mean free path
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 14 Oscillations
Section Name Topic Name 14 Oscillations 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Periodic and oscilatory motions 14.3 Simple harmonic motion 14.4 Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion 14.5 Velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion 14.6 Force law for simple harmonic motion 14.7 Energy in simple harmonic motion 14.8 Some systems executing Simple Harmonic Motion 14.9 Damped simple harmonic motion 14.10 Forced oscillations and resonance
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 15 Waves
Section Name Topic Name 15 Waves 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Transverse and longitudinal waves 15.3 Displacement relation in a progressive wave 15.4 The speed of a travelling wave 15.5 The principle of superposition of waves 15.6 Reflection of waves 15.7 Beats 15.8 Doppler effect
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Class 11th Physics Online Class For 100% Result

### Units and Measurements Important Extra Questions Very Short Answer Type

Question 1.
If the size of the atom were enlarged to the tip of the sharp pin, how large would the height of Mount Everest be?
1010 m.

Question 2.
What does the LASER mean?
It stands for Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation.

Question 3.
If the Universe were shrunk to the size of the Earth, how large would the Earth be on this scale?
1o-11 m (size of an atom.).

Question 4.
A research worker takes 100 careful readings in an experiment. If he repeats the same experiment by taking 400 readings, then by what factor will the probable error be reduced?
By a factor of 4.

Question 5.
What is the number of significant figures in 0.06070?
4.

Question 6.
Which of the following reading is most accurate?
(a) 7000m,
(b) 7 × 102 m,
(c) 7 × 103 m
(a) i.e. 7000 m.

Question 7.
The density of a cube is calculated by measuring the length of one side and its mass. If the maximum errors in the measurement of mass and length are 3% and 2% respectively, then what is the maximum possible error in the measurement of density?
3% + 3 × 2% = 9%.

Question 8.
The mass of a body as measured by two students is given as 1.2 kg and 1.23 kg. Which of the two is more accurate and why?
The second measurement is more accurate as it has been made to the second decimal point.

Question 9.
Do the inertial and gravitational masses of ordinary objects differ in magnitude?
No.

Question 10.
Are S.I. units Coherent? Why?
Yes, because all the derived units in this system can be obtained by multiplying or dividing a certain set of basic units.

Question 11.
Do A.U. And Å represents the same magnitudes of distance?
No, 1 A.U. = 1.496 × 1011 m and 1 Å = 1010 m.

Question 12.
What does SONAR stand for?
It stands for Sound Navigation and Ranging.

Question 14.
Which is the most accurate clock?
Cesium atomic clock.

Question 15.
Write the S.I. units of the following physical quantities:
(a) Luminous intensity
Candela (cd)

(b) Temperature
Kelvin (K)

(c) Electric current
Ampere (A)

(d) Amount of substance
Mole (mol)

(e) Plane angle

(f) Solid angle

(g) Pressure.
Nm-2 = pascal (pa).

Question 16.
What is the difference between mN, Nm, and nm?

• mN means.milli-newton, 1 mN = 10-3N.
• Nm means newton-meter, 1 Nm = 1 J
• nm means namometer, 1 nm = 10-9 m.

Question 17.
If x = a + bt + ct2 where x is in meter and t in seconds, what is the unit of c?
The unit on the left-hand side is a meter so the units of ct2 should also be a meter. Since t2 has units of s2, so the unit of c is ms-2

Question 18.
Will the dimensions of a physical quantity be the same, whatever be the units in which it is measured? Why?
Yes, the dimensions don’t depend on the system of units chosen.

Question 19.
Write the dimensions of:
(i) gravitational constant
[M-1 L3 T2]

(ii) Plank’s constant
[M L2 T-1]

(iii) torque
[M L2 T2]

(iv) surface tension
[M L0 T-2]

(v) angular momentum.
[M L2 T-1]

Question 20.
Name at least two physical quantities each having dimensions:
(a) [M L-1 T-2]
Pressure and stress,

(b) [M L2 T-1]
Plank’s constant and angular momentum.

Question 21.
State the principle of homogeneity of dimensions?
It states that the dimensions of each term on both sides of an equation are the same.

Question 22.
Which are the main types of errors in a physical measurement?
Main errors are systematic error, random error, gross error, relative error, and percentage error.

Question 23.
Which one is large, the number of microseconds in a second or the number of seconds in a year?
The number of seconds in a year = 107s and the number of microseconds in a second = 106μs. So the number of seconds in a year is larger than microseconds in a second.

Question 24.
Do significant figures change if the physical quantity is measured in different systems of units?
No, significant figures don’t depend on the system of units. e.s. 250 g = 2.50 × 10-1 kg.
Both have 3 significant figures.

Question 25.
Suggest a distance corresponding to each of the following order of length:
(a) 10-4 m
Size of the atomic nucleus

(b) 10-9 m
Size of the oil molecule

(c) 104 m
Height of Mount Everest

(d) 107 m

(e) 109 m.

Question 26.
What do you understand by the following?
(a) Century
It is the largést unit of time, 1 century = 100 years.

(b) Shake
It is the smallest unit of time, 1 shake = 10-8s.

(c) Lunar month
It is the time taken by the moon to complete one revolution around the Earth, 1 lunar month = 27.3 days.

(d) Leap year
A year that is divisible by four and in which the month of February is of 29 days is called a leap year.

(e) Tropical year.
The year in which the total solar eclipse takes place is called a tropical year.

Question 29.
What do you mean by the term measurement?
Measurement means the comparison of a physical quantity with its unit to find out how many times the unit is contained in the given physical quantity.

Question 30.
Sort out the incorrect representation of units and write them
(i) m/sec
ms-1

(ii) Newton
newton

(iii) kelvin
kelvin

(iv) m.m.
mm

(v) Jk-1
JK-1

(vi) kg/m3
kgm-3

(vii) wH
Wh

(viii) gms-2
gs2

(ix) length = 5M
length = 5 m

(x) B = 4g (B = magnetic field intensity).
B = 4G

Question 31.
Define light year.
It is defined as the distance traveled by light in one year.
1 L.Y. (ly) = 3 × 108 ms-1 × 365 × 24 × 60 × 60s ≈ 9.46 × 1015 m.

Question 32.
Define Astronomical distance.
It is defined as the distance between the Earth and Sun.
1 A.U. = 1.496 × 1011 m~ 1.5 × 1011 m.

Question 33.
What is the limit of
(i) accuracy
The least count of the measuring instrument is the limit of accuracy with which a physical quantity can be measured.

(ii) error?
The error in measurement is taken equal to half the least count.

Question 34.
What do you mean by ‘Order of magnitude’?
Order of magnitude is defined as the approximation to the nearest power of 10 used to express the magnitude of a physical quantity under consideration, e.g.

1. The order of magnitude of the time interval of 1.2 × 10-6 s is -6.
2. The order of magnitude of the distance of 4.5 × 106 is +6.

Question 35.
Find the order of magnitude of a light-year.
I light year = 9.46 × 1015 m ≈ 1016m
∴ The order of magnitude of light-year is +16.

Question 36.
Derive the dimensional formula of:
(a) Angular velocity
Angular velocity =  Angle / Time =1 /T = [M0 L0 T-1]

(b) Angular momentum
Angular momentum = momentot inertia × Angular velocity
= mass x (radius of rotalion)2 (Time)-1
= [M L2 T-1].

Question 37.
Derive the dimensional formula of:
(a) Impulse
Impulse = Force x Time
= [M L T-2][T]
= [M L2 T-1].

Question 42.
Define the dimensional formula of a physical quantity.
It is defined as an expression that shows which of the fundamental units and with what powers appear into the derived unit of a physical quantity.
e.g. dimensional formula of force is [ML1 T2].

Question 43.
Define dimensional equation of a physical quantity.
It is defined as the equation obtained by equating the symbol of a physical quantity with its dimensional formula, e.g. [F] = [M L T-2] is the dimensional equation of force.

Question 44.
Define one kilogram.
It is the mass of platinum-iridium cylinder (90% Pt + 10% Ir) having its diameter equal to its height (both equal to 3.9 cm) kept in the International Bureau of Weights and Measures of Sevres near Paris.

Question 45.
Define one second.
It is defined as the time interval occupied by 9, 192, 631, 770 vibrations corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine levels of cesium -133 (Cs133) atom in the ground state.

Question 46.
Define one ampere.
It is defined as that constant current which when flowing through two parallel, straight conductors of the infinite length of negligible cross-section held one meter apart in a vacuum produces a force of 2 × 10-7 N/m between them.

Question 47.
Define Kelvin.
It is defined as 1/273.16 fraction of the thermodynamic temperature at the triple point of water.

Question 48.
It is defined as the angle made at the center of a circle by an arc of length equal to the radius of the circle.

Question 49.
It is defined as the solid angle made at the center of a sphere by an area cut from its surface whose area is equal to the square of the radius of the sphere.

Question 50.
Define one mole.
It is defined as the amount of substance that contains the same number of elementary units {i.e. atoms) as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12.

Question 51.
Define standard meter.
It is defined to be equal to exactly 1650763.73 wavelengths of orange-red light emitted in vacuum by krypton-86 atom i.e. kr86.
i. e. 1 metre = 16,50,763.73 wavelengths.
Or
It is also defined as the distance traveled by light in 1/299792458 second.

Here 299792458 ms-1 is the exact value of the velocity of light.

For all practical purposes, c = 2.9 × 108 ms-1 = 3.0 × 108 ms-1.

### Units and Measurements Important Extra Questions Short Answer Type

Question 1.
If the size of a nucleus is scaled up to the tip of a sharp pin, what roughly is the size of an atom?
The size of a nucleus is in the range of 10-15 m to 10-14 m. The tip of a sharp pain may be taken to be in the range of 1o-5 m to 10-4 m. Thus we are scaling up the size of the nucleus by a factor of 10-5/10-15 = 1010. An atom roughly of size 10-10 m will be scaled up to a rough size of 10-10 × 1010 = 1 m. Thusanucleus in an átom is as small in size as the tip of a sharp pin placed at the center of a sphere of radius about a meter.

Question 2.
(a) What do you mean by physical quantity?
It is defined as a quantity that can be measured, e.g. mass, length, time, etc.

(b) What do you understand by:
(i) Fundamental physical quantities?
They are defined as those quantities which cannot be expressed in terms of other quantities and are independent of each other, e.g. mass, length, time.

(ii) Derived physical quantities?
They are defined as the quantities which can be expressed in terms of fundamental quantities, e.g. velocity, acceleration, density, pressure, etc.

Question 3.
(a) Define the unit of a physical quantity.
It is defined as the reference standard used to measure a physical quantity.

(b) Define:
(i) Fundamental units.
They are defined as the units of fundamental quantities. They are independent of each other and are expressed by writing the letter of the fundamental quantity in a parenthesis.
e.g. Fundamental units of mass, length and time are [M], [L], [T] respectively.

(ii) Derived units.
They are defined as those units which can be derived from fundamental units. They are expressed by writing the symbol of a derived quantity in a parenthesis.
e.g. D.U. of velocity = [u]
acceleration = [a]
pressure = [P]
work = [W] and so on.

Question 4.
Define one Candela.
It is defined as the luminous intensity in a perpendicular direction of a surface of 1/600,000 square meter area of a black body at a temperature of freezing platinum (1773°C) under a pressure of 101,325 N/m2.

It is the S.I. unit of luminous intensity.

Question 5.
What is the advantage of choosing wavelength of light radiation as standard of length?

1. It can be easily made available in any standard laboratory as Krypton is available everywhere.
2. It is well defined and does not change with temperature, time, place or pressure, etc.
3. It is invariable.
4. It increases the accuracy of the measurement of length (1 part in 109).

Question 6.
Which type of phenomenon can be used as a measure of time? Give two examples of it.
Any phenomenon that repeats itself regularly at equal intervals of time can be used to measure time.

The examples are:

1. Rotation of earth – the time interval for one complete rotation is called a day.
2. Oscillations of a pendulum.