Course Content
Class 11 Physics Chapter 1 Physical World
Section Name Topic Name 1 Physical World 1.1 What is physics? 1.2 Scope and excitement of physics 1.3 Physics, technology and society 1.4 Fundamental forces in nature 1.5 Nature of physical laws
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 2 Unit and Measurements
Unit and Measurements
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 3 Motion In A Straight Line
Section Name Topic Name 3 Motion in a Straight Line 3.1 Introduction 3.2 Position, path length and displacement 3.3 Average velocity and average speed 3.4 Instantaneous velocity and speed 3.5 Acceleration 3.6 Kinematic equations for uniformly accelerated motion 3.7 Relative velocity
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 4 Motion In A Plane
4 Motion in a plane 4.1 Introduction 4.2 Scalars and vectors 4.3 Multiplication of vectors by real numbers 4.4 Addition and subtraction of vectors – graphical method 4.5 Resolution of vectors 4.6 Vector addition – analytical method 4.7 Motion in a plane 4.8 Motion in a plane with constant acceleration 4.9 Relative velocity in two dimensions 4.10 Projectile motion 4.11 Uniform circular motion
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 5 Laws of motion
Section Name Topic Name 5 Laws of motion 5.1 Introduction 5.2 Aristotle’s fallacy 5.3 The law of inertia 5.4 Newton’s first law of motion 5.5 Newton’s second law of motion 5.6 Newton’s third law of motion 5.7 Conservation of momentum 5.8 Equilibrium of a particle 5.9 Common forces in mechanics 5.10 Circular motion 5.11 Solving problems in mechanics
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 6 Work Energy and Power
Section Name Topic Name 6 Work Energy and power 6.1 Introduction 6.2 Notions of work and kinetic energy : The work-energy theorem 6.3 Work 6.4 Kinetic energy 6.5 Work done by a variable force 6.6 The work-energy theorem for a variable force 6.7 The concept of potential energy 6.8 The conservation of mechanical energy 6.9 The potential energy of a spring 6.10 Various forms of energy : the law of conservation of energy 6.11 Power 6.12 Collisions
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 7 Rotation motion
Topics Introduction Centre of mass Motion of COM Linear Momentum of System of Particles Vector Product Angular velocity Torque &amp; Angular Momentum Conservation of Angular Momentum Equilibrium of Rigid Body Centre of Gravity Moment of Inertia Theorem of perpendicular axis Theorem of parallel axis Moment of Inertia of Objects Kinematics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis Dynamics of Rotational Motion about a Fixed Axis Angular Momentum In Case of Rotation about a Fixed Axis Rolling motion
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 8 Gravitation
Section Name Topic Name 8 Gravitation 8.1 Introduction 8.2 Kepler’s laws 8.3 Universal law of gravitation 8.4 The gravitational constant 8.5 Acceleration due to gravity of the earth 8.6 Acceleration due to gravity below and above the surface of earth 8.7 Gravitational potential energy 8.8 Escape speed 8.9 Earth satellite 8.10 Energy of an orbiting satellite 8.11 Geostationary and polar satellites 8.12 Weightlessness
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 9 mechanics properties of solid
Section Name Topic Name 9 Mechanical Properties Of Solids 9.1 Introduction 9.2 Elastic behaviour of solids 9.3 Stress and strain 9.4 Hooke’s law 9.5 Stress-strain curve 9.6 Elastic moduli 9.7 Applications of elastic behaviour of materials
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 10 Mechanical Properties of Fluids
Section Name Topic Name 10 Mechanical Properties Of Fluids 10.1 Introduction 10.2 Pressure 10.3 Streamline flow 10.4 Bernoulli’s principle 10.5 Viscosity 10.6 Reynolds number 10.7 Surface tension
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 11 Thermal Properties of matter
Section Name Topic Name 11 Thermal Properties of matter 11.1 Introduction 11.2 Temperature and heat 11.3 Measurement of temperature 11.4 Ideal-gas equation and absolute temperature 11.5 Thermal expansion 11.6 Specific heat capacity 11.7 Calorimetry 11.8 Change of state 11.9 Heat transfer 11.10 Newton’s law of cooling
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 12 Thermodynamics
Section Name Topic Name 12 Thermodynamics 12.1 Introduction 12.2 Thermal equilibrium 12.3 Zeroth law of thermodynamics 12.4 Heat, internal energy and work 12.5 First law of thermodynamics 12.6 Specific heat capacity 12.7 Thermodynamic state variables and equation of state 12.8 Thermodynamic processes 12.9 Heat engines 12.10 Refrigerators and heat pumps 12.11 Second law of thermodynamics 12.12 Reversible and irreversible processes 12.13 Carnot engine
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 13 Kinetic Theory
Section Name Topic Name 13 Kinetic Theory 13.1 Introduction 13.2 Molecular nature of matter 13.3 Behaviour of gases 13.4 Kinetic theory of an ideal gas 13.5 Law of equipartition of energy 13.6 Specific heat capacity 13.7 Mean free path
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 14 Oscillations
Section Name Topic Name 14 Oscillations 14.1 Introduction 14.2 Periodic and oscilatory motions 14.3 Simple harmonic motion 14.4 Simple harmonic motion and uniform circular motion 14.5 Velocity and acceleration in simple harmonic motion 14.6 Force law for simple harmonic motion 14.7 Energy in simple harmonic motion 14.8 Some systems executing Simple Harmonic Motion 14.9 Damped simple harmonic motion 14.10 Forced oscillations and resonance
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Class 11 Physics Chapter 15 Waves
Section Name Topic Name 15 Waves 15.1 Introduction 15.2 Transverse and longitudinal waves 15.3 Displacement relation in a progressive wave 15.4 The speed of a travelling wave 15.5 The principle of superposition of waves 15.6 Reflection of waves 15.7 Beats 15.8 Doppler effect
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Class 11th Physics Online Class For 100% Result

Displacement in a progressive wave

• Amplitude and phase together describe the complete displacement of the wave.
• Displacement function is a periodic in space and time.
• Displacement of the particles in a medium takes place along the y-axis.
• Generally displacement is denoted as a function of X and T, but here it is denoted by y.
• In case of transverse wave displacement is given as:
• y(x,t) where x=propagation of the wave along x-axis, and particles oscillates along y-axis.
• Therefore y(x,t)= A sin(kx – ωt + φ).This is the expression for displacement.
• This expression is same as displacement equation which is used in oscillatory motion.
• As cosine function;y(x,t)= B cos(kx – ωt + φ),As both sine and cosine function)y (x, t) = A sin (kx – ωt + φ) + B cos(kx – ωt + φ)

Mathematically:

• Wave travelling along +X-axis: y(x, t) = a sin (kx – ωt + φ).
• Consider y=asin(kx – ωt + φ)=> y/a=sin(kx – ωt + φ)
• sin-1(y/a) = kx-ωt =>kx=sin-1(y/a) +ωt
• x=(1/k)sin-1(y/a)+ (ωt/k)
• Wave travelling along –X-axis: x=(1/k)sin-1(y/a)-(ωt/k)(only change in the sign ofωt)
• Conclusion:-
• As time t increases the value of x increases. This implies the x moves along x-axis.
• As time t decreases the value of x decrease. This implies the x moves along (-)ive x-axis.

In case of longitudinal wave,

• There are regions of compressions (particles are closely packed) and rarefactions (particles are far apart).
• In compressions density of the wave medium is highest and in rarefactions density of the wave is lowest.
• Consider when the particle is at rarefaction, in that region as particle gets more space as a result the particles oscillates to the maximum displacement.
• Whereas in compressed region the particles oscillates very less as the space is not very much.
• The peak or the maximum amplitude is the centre of two compressed regions.Because at the centre of the two compressed region the particle is most free to displace to maximum displaced position.

Conclusion:-

• In case of longitudinal wave the particles will not oscillate to a very large distance. This displacement won’t represent the amplitude as it is not maximum possible displacement.

Amplitude is represented basically by the centre of the rarefaction region where the particle is most free to oscillate to its maximum displacement.

• Consider two points A and B on a wave.Their positions as well as their behaviour are same. Therefore points A and B are in phase.
• Consider points A and C on a wave. They are not in phase with each other as their position is not same.
• Similarly the points C and D are not in phase with each other as their positions are same but the behaviour is different. Thereforethey are not in phase with each other.
• Consider the points F and G their positions are same but the behaviour is totally opposite. So F and G are out of phase.
• Consider the points F and H;they are in phase with each other as their position is same as well as their behaviour.

Wavelength

• The term wavelength means length of the wave.
• Wavelength is defined as the minimum distance between two consecutive points in the same phase of wave motion.
• It is denoted by λ.
• In case of transverse wave we use the term crest for thepeak of the maximum displacement.
• The point of minimum displacement is known as trough.
• In case of transverse wave wavelength is the distance between two consecutive crests or distance between two consecutive troughs.
• In case of longitudinal wave wavelength is the distance between the two compressions or the distance between the two rarefactions provided the compressions or rarefactions are nearest.

Frequency of the ultrasonic sound, ν = 1000 kHz = 106 Hz

Speed of sound in water, vw = 1486 m/s

The wavelength of the transmitted sound is given as:

λr = 1486/106 =1.49 × 10–3 m

Problem:- A hospital uses an ultrasonic scanner to locate tumours in a tissue. What is the wavelength of soundin the tissue in which the speed of sound is 1.7 km s–1? The operating frequency of the scanner is4.2 MHz

Answer: Speed of sound in the tissue, v = 1.7 km/s = 1.7 × 103 m/s.

Operatingfrequency of the scanner, ν = 4.2 MHz = 4.2 × 106 Hz.

The wavelength ofsound in the tissue is given as:

λ=ν/v

= (1.7×103)/ (4.2×106)

=4.1×10-4

Wave Number

Wave number describes the number of wavelengths per unit distance.

Denoted by ‘k’.

y(x,t)= a sin(kx – ωt + φ) assuming φ=0.

• At initial time t=0:-
• y(x,0)=asin kx (i)
• When x=x+λ then y(x+λ,0)=a sink(x+λ)   (ii)
• When x=x+2λ then y(x+2λ,0)=a sink(x+2λ)

Value of y is equal at all points because all the points’ λ, 2λ are in phase with each other. Therefore,

From(i) and (ii) asin kx= a sink(x+λ)  =asin(kx+k λ)

This is true if and only if: -k λ =2 πn, where n=1, 2, 3…

k=(2 π n)/ λ. This is the expression for wave number.

k is also known as propagation constantbecause it tells about the propagationof the wave.

Wave number is an indirect way of describing the propagation of wave.

Time Period, Frequency and Angular frequency

1. Time Period of a wave: –
1. Time Period of a wave is the time taken through one complete oscillation. It is denoted by’T’.
2. Frequency of a wave:-
1. Frequency of a wave is defined as number of oscillations per unit time.It is denoted by ν.
2. ν=1/T.
3. Angular frequency: –
1. Angular frequency is defined as the frequency of the wave in terms of a circular motion.
2. The term angular frequency is used only when there is an angle involved in the motion in that particular motion.
3. It is denoted by ‘ω’.
4. For example:-In linear motion angular frequency is not used but in case of wave the term angular frequency is used.
• Relation of with ω frequency ν is given ω= 2πνorω= 2π/T.

= 7.85 cm

(c) Now we relate T to ω by the relation

T = 2π/ω = (2 π)/ (3.0) s–1

Frequency, v = 1/T = 0.48 Hz.

The displacement y at x = 30.0 cm andtime t = 20 s is given by

y = (0.005 m) sin (80.0 × 0.3 – 3.0 × 20)

= (0.005 m) sin (–36 + 12π)

= (0.005 m) sin (1.699)

= (0.005 m) sin (970)

~ 5 mm

Problem:-

A transverse harmonic wave on a string is described by y(x,t) =3.0sin(36t+0.081x+(π/4))   Where x and y are in cm and t in s. The positive direction of x is from left to right. Is this a travelling wave or a stationary wave?

• If it is travelling, what are the speed and direction of its propagation?
• What are its amplitude and frequency?
• What is the initial phase at the origin?
• What is the least distance between two successive crests in the wave?

• Yes; Speed = 20 m/s, Direction = Right to left
• 3 cm; 5.73 Hz,
• (π/4)
• 49 m

Explanation: The equation of a progressive wave travelling from right to left is given by the displacement

Function:y (x, t) = a sin (ωt + kx + Φ) … (i). The given equation is:

y(x, t) =3.0sin (36t+0.081x+(π/4))..(ii)

On comparing both the equations, we find that equation (ii) represents a travelling wave,

propagating fromright to left.

Now, using equations (i) and (ii), we can write:

ω = 36 rad/s and k = 0.018 m–1. We knowthat:

ν=ω/ (2π) and λ= (2π)/k

Also, v = νλ

Therefore, ν=(ω/ (2π)) x (2π/k) = ω/k

=36/ (0.018)=2000cm/s=20m/s

Hence, the speed of the given travelling wave is 20 m/s.

Amplitude of the given wave, a = 3 cm

Frequency of thegiven wave:

ν=ω/ (2π) = 36/ (2×3.14) =5.73Hz

On comparing equations (i) and (ii), we find that the initial phase angle, Φ= (π/4)

The distance between two successive crests or troughs is equal to the wavelength of the wave.

Wavelength is given by the relation:

k=(2π)/λ

Therefore,

λ= (2π)/k = (2×3.14)/ (0.018) = 348.89cm=3.49m

The speed of a travelling wave

• To determine the speed of a travelling wave.
• The propagation of the wave always takes place along the +(ive) x-axis.
• It is denoted by v.
• Consider transverse wave moving along (+) ive x axis.
• Displacement equation y (x, t) = a sin (kx – ωt) assuming φ=0.
• In case of transverse wave the y denotes the movement of particles along y-axis.x denotes the direction of wave propagation in terms of x axis.
• y-axis denotes the displacement of the particles of the medium in case of transverse wave and in case of longitudinal wavex denotes the movement of the particles along x-axis.
• In case of longitudinal wave the motion of particles takes place along x-axis and not along y-axis.
• The form of equation remains the same for both transverse and longitudinal wave.
• Only the direction of propagation i.e. the direction of the movement of the particles differs in case of transverse and longitudinal waves.
• We have considered only the motion along the horizontal direction i.e. x-axis. i.e. motion of all the peaks and which is a motion of a straight line.
• Displacement takes place along the straight line along x-axis.
• y component does not play much role as it talks about the movement of particles of the medium.
• When we are considering the peaks as a result phase does not have any role. That is phase is constant.
• y/a=sin(kx – ωt) => sin-1 (y/a) = (kx- ωt )
• => x=(1/k)sin-1 (y/a) +ωt/k (where (1/k)sin-1 (y/a)  is constant)
• => Speed V=dx/dt =ω/k

(By differentiating with time,(1/k)sin-1 (y/a) = 0 as differentiating a constant term is 0.)

• Therefore Wave Speed V= ω/kwhereω=angular frequency and k=wave number.