Science and its origin
Science is a systematic understanding of natural phenomena in detail so that it can be predicted, controlled and modified. Science involves exploring, experimenting and speculating phenomena happening around us.
- The word Science is derived from a latin verb Scientiameaning ‘to know’.
- Scientific method is a way to gain knowledge in a systematic and in-depth way. It involves:
- Systematic observations
- Controlled experiments
- Qualitative and Quantitative reasoning
- Mathematical modeling
- Prediction and verification (or falsification) of theories
- Speculation or Prediction
- Science does not have any final theory. The improved observations, accurate tools keep improving the knowledge and perspective. Johannes Kepler used Tycho Brahe’s research on planetary motion to improve Nicolas Copernicus theory.
- Quantum mechanics was developed to deal with atomic and nuclear phenomena. Work of Ernest Rutherford on nuclear model of atom became basis of quantum theory given by Niels Bohr. Antiparticle theory of Paul Dirac led to the discovery of antielectron (positron) by Carl Anderson.
Natural science is a branch of science concerned with the description, prediction, and understanding of natural phenomena, based on observational and empirical evidence. It consists of following disciplines:
Physics is a study of basic laws of nature and their manifestation in different natural phenomena. Physics is the study of physical world and matter and its motion through space and time, along with related concepts such as energy and force.
- Word Physics is derived from a Greek word phusikḗmeaning nature.
- Two principal types of approaches in Physics are:
- Unification: This approach considers all of the world’s phenomena as a collection of universal laws in different domains and conditions. Example, law of gravitation applies both to a falling apple from a tree as well as motion of planets around the sun. Electromagnetism laws govern all electric and magnetic phenomena.
- Reduction: This approach is to derive properties of complex systems from the properties and interaction of its constituent parts. Example, temperature studied under thermodynamics is also related to average kinetic energy of molecules in a system (kinetic theory).
Impact and uses of Physics
- It can explain a phenomena happening over a large magnitude with a simple theory.
- Experiments and observations are used to develop new theories for unidentified phenomena and improve old theories for existing phenomena.
- Development of devices using laws of physics.