Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
Class 11th Chemistry Online Class: Elevate Your CBSE Board Success
About Lesson

Bond parameters

They are the measurable properties of a bond and these are associated only with covalent bond.

  1. Bond length: It is the average distance between the centre of two bonded atoms .

Factors on which bond length depends:

  • Size of the atoms: Bigger the size of the atom more is the bond length.
  • Multiplicity of bond: If there is a single bond, bond length is longer as compared to bond length in double or triple bond.
  • That is the reason bond length of alkanes is more than alkenes which is further more than alkynes.
  1. Bond angle: It is an average distance between the orbital of the atoms surrounding the central atom.

For example

Class 11th Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
  1. Bond order: It is the number of bonds present between two atoms.

For example: In H(bond order is 1 )

                         In oxygen molecule (bond order is 2)

                         In nitrogen molecule bond order is 3)

  • In Iso-electronic species: The bond order is same.

Example: In Fluorine and O22- the electrons are 18 and bond order is same that is 1.

Chemical Bonding
  • Resonance averages the bond characteristics of a molecule as a whole.
  • Resonance stabilizes the molecule because energy of the resonance hybrid is less than the energy of any canonical forms.


  1. It has no real existence.
  2. Resonance has the same bond length.
  3. A resonance hybrid has the lowest energy.
  4. The greater the resonance and resonance energy the more stable is the structure.
  5. Resonance is a theoretical concept with no experimental verification.,
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