Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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Carbon monoxide (CO)


  • It is prepared from incomplete combustion of carbon as given in reaction below :

C + ½ O2  –>CO

Carbon oxygen   carbon monoxide

  • Heating Methanoic acid in presence of sulphuric acid at temperature 473-1273 k.

HCOOH + H2SO4— >CO + H2O

Methanoic acid     sulphuric acid      carbon monoxide  and water

  • Commercial preparation: Heating Coke with water at high temperature.

C + H2O  –> CO + H2

Carbon  water       syn gas

If we mix carbon in air :

C + O2+ 4N2  –> CO + N2

  carbon   oxygen   nitrogen    carbon monoxide and nitrogen gas


  • It is colourless and odourless.
  • It is insoluble in water.
  • It is highly toxic in nature as it combines with Haemoglobin,to form defective complex .As a result, the oxygen carrying capacity of RBC gets reduced.
  • It burns in air to form carbon dioxide.


  • It acts as reducing agent in extraction of metals.
  • It reacts with certain metals to form Metal carbonyls.
  • It forms synthesis gas that has industrial advantage.
  • It forms producer gas that has industrial advantage.

Carbon dioxide (CO2)


  • From complete combustion of Carbon and Carbon containing fuels in excess of air:

                     C + O— >CO2

                           carbon oxygen carbondioxide

                  CH4+ O–.>CO2 + H2O

                        Methane   carbon dioxide and water


  • It is colourless and odourless.
  • It is soluble in water.
  • It is non supporter of combustion.
  • It combines with water to for Carbonic acid (weak dibasic acid).


  • It forms carbonic acid which undergo dissociation as :

This H2CO3 and HCO3 helps in maintaining pH of blood between 7.26  to     7.42.

  • Carbon dioxide is used by plants for photosynthesis: If the percentage of this gas increases in atmosphere, it has adverse affect like green house effect, which further results in ecological imbalance .
  • Dry ice (solid form of carbon dioxide) is used as refrigerant for ice creams and frozen food.
  • Gaseous carbon dioxide is used in carbonated soft drinks.
  • Carbon dioxide is used in fire extinguisher as it is non supporter of combustion.

Silicon dioxide (SiO2)

About 95% of earth crust is made up of silica and silicates .Silicon dioxide is commonly called as silica and it occurs in different forms :

Crystalline form of silica

  • Quartz
  • Cristobalite
  • Tridymite

These forms are inter-convertible at suitable temperature.

Structure of Silicon dioxide

The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
The p Block Elements
The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
  • This silicon tetra fluoride can easily dissolves in HF to form H2SiF(hydro-Fluoro-silicic acid ).
  • Due to formation of this compound, the SiO2 present in glass gets dissolved. That is the reason the hydrogen fluoride can’t be stored in glass bottles, instead it is stored in containers made of Cu, Ni+ traces of Fe alloy .
  • Quartz is used as piezoelectric material.


  • Silicon dioxide is used as catalyst in petroleum industry.
  • When (NH4)2CoCl4 is added to silica gel , it act as a humidity detector .Since ,it is blue when dry but turns pink when hydrated .


  • They are synthetic organo-silicon compounds containing repeated R2SiO units held by Si-O-Si linkages.
  • These compounds have the general formula (R2SiO)n where R is methyl or aryl group .


  • The methyl chloride reacts with Silicon in presence of Copper at temperature 573k.
  • As a result, we get different types of methyl substituted cholrosilane of formulas :MeSiCl3, MeSiCl2, Me3SiCl and also Me4

CH3Cl + Si –> (CH3)2SiCl2

methyl chloride          dichloromethylsilane

                      (CH3)2SiCl2   + H2O –> (CH3)2Si(OH)2


  • If we carry out hydrolysis of dichlorodi-methylsilane followed by polymerization we get , straight chain polymers


  • Silicones with :
  • Short chains – oily liquids
  • Medium chain- viscous oils, jellies and greases
  • Long chains – rubbery elastomers and resins .
  • They are chemically inert, resistant to oxidation and thermal decomposition.
  • Silicones are surrounded with non polar alkyl group that are water repelling in nature.
  • They are heat resistant and possess high dielectric constant.


  • They are used in making water proof papers, wool ,textile, wood  etc by coating them with thin film of silicones.
  • They are used as electric insulators.
  • They are used as lubricants at high as well as at low temperature , as there is very little change in their viscosity with temperature.
  • They are used in surgical implants.
The p Block Elements Notes and NCERT Solution For Class 11th Chemistry.
The p Block Elements


  • They are widely used as catalyst in petrochemical industries for cracking of hydrocarbons.
  • In them basically the Silicon atoms in three dimensional structures is replaced by Aluminum ions.
  • As a result, the overall structure carries the negative charge .
  • To balance this negative charge some cations like sodium ion etc are added in the structure.

   For example:

  1. ZSM-5 a type of zeolite converts alcohols directly to gasoline.
  2. Hydrated zeolite is used as permutit in ion exchange method for softening of hard water.
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