Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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Question 1. When liquid benzene is oxidised at constant pressure at 300 K, the change in enthalpy is -3728 kJ. What is the change in internal energy at the same temperature?

Question 3. Calculate the enthalpy change for the reaction: H2(g) + Cl2(g) ————-> 2HCl(g). Given that bond energies ofH-H, Cl- Cl and H-Cl bonds are 433, 244 and 431 kj mol-1 respectively.
Answer: The chemical equation for the reaction is:
H2(g) + Cl2(g) ———-> 2HCl(g)
The enthalpy of reaction is:
rH =∑B.E. of reactants – ∑B.E. of products= [B.E. of H-H bond + B.E. of Cl-Cl bond]
– [2 x B.E. of H—Cl bond]
= (433 + 244) – (2 x 431) = 433 + 244 – 862 = -185 kj

Question 4. The bond enthalpy of H2(g) is 436 kj mol-1and that of N2 (g) is 941.3 kj mol-1. Calculate the average bond enthalpy of an N-H bond in ammonia. Given: ∆H (NH3) = -46 kj mol-1

Question 12. Give reason for the following:
(a)Neither q nor w is a state function but q + w is a state function.
(b)A real crystal has more entropy than an ideal crystal.
Answer: (a) q + w = ∆u
As ∆u is a state function hence, q + w is a state function.
(b) A real crystal has some disorder due to the presence of defects in its structural arrangement whereas ideal crystal does not have any disorder. Hence, a real crystal has more entropy than an ideal crystal.

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