Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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About Lesson

Quick Lime

  • The chemical name of Quick Lime is Calcium Oxide (CaO).
  • It is a white amorphous solid.
  • The melting point of CaO is 2870 K.
  • It absorbs moisture and carbon dioxide when exposed to atmosphere.
  • It is used in manufacturing industry to manufacture cement, dye stuffs and sodium carbonate.
  • It is also used for the purification of sugar.
  • It is prepared byheating limestone (CaCO3) in a kiln at a temperature of 1070-1270 K.

CaCO3  <–> CaO + CO2

  • Addition of water to CaO results in slaking of lime.
  • Slaking of Quick lime with sodaresults solid soda lime.
  • CaO being a basic oxide combines with acidic oxides at high

CaO + SiO2 –> CaSiO3

6CaO + P4O10 –> 2Ca3 (PO4)2

Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3)

  • It is a white fluffy powder that is insoluble in water and gets decomposed followed by the release of carbon-dioxide on heating to 1200 K.

CaCO3 + 1200k –> CaO + CO2

CaCO3 + 2HCl –> CaCl2 + H2O + CO2

CaCO3 + H2SO4 –>  CaSO+ H2O + CO2


  • Combination of CaO with clay containing silica, SiOalong with the oxides of aluminium, iron and magnesium leads to the formation of cement.

Composition of Portland cement

  • CaO = 50-60%;
  • SiO2 = 20-25%;
  • Al2O3 = 5-10%;
  • MgO = 2-3%;
  • Fe2O3 = 1-2%
  • SO3 = 1-2%.

Strong heating of clay andlime results in their fusion followed by the formation of cement clinker which is then mixed with 2-3% by weight of gypsum(CaSO42H2O). This leads to the formation of cement.

  • Important ingredients of Cement:

Dicalcium silicate (Ca2SiO4) = 26%,

Tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5) = 51%

Tricalcium aluminate (Ca3Al2O6) = 11%

  • Settling of cement:

Addition of water to cement hydrates the molecules of the constituents. Gypsum is added in order to slow down the process of setting of the cement to make it get hardened.

  • It is used to prepare concrete in plastering and constructingbridges, dams and buildings.
  • Many fertilizers are manufactured using potassium
  • Sodium in its liquid state is used as a coolant infirm breeder nuclear reactors.
  • Beryllium is used for creating alloys.
  • Beryllium in combination with copper is sued to create strong springs.
  • Beryllium is used for making windows ofX-ray tubes.

Question: Write balanced equations for reactions between
(a) Na2O2 and water
(b) KO2 and water
(c) Na2O and CO2


(a) 2 Na2O2(s) + 2 H2O(l) –> 4 NaOH(aq) + O2(g)

(b) 20 KO2 + H20 –> 20 KOH + 10 O2

(c) 2 Na2O + 3 Co2 –> 2 Na2Co3 + O2

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