Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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About Lesson

Green House Effect

Global warming

Global warming “is the increase in the concentration of certain gases like carbon dioxide, methane, etc. in air due to which infra-red rays get trapped in it and it leads to increase in overall temperature of earth.”

  • The rays that come from the Sun consist of visible light, infra-red rays and ultra violet rays. Out of these, only infra-red rays and visible light reaches earth’s surface. On reaching earth, the infra-red rays are reflected back and a portion of it is absorbed by earth’s surface. The reflected ones when pass through earth’s atmosphere, get trapped inside the gas molecules. As we know, itleads to heating effect. Therefore, the overall temperature of earth’s surface rises. One of the reasons for global warming is greenhouse effect.
  • In winters, it is advised to keep plants in green houses only. The roof allows infra-red rays to enter but after reflection, they are not allowed to go back. As a result, they get trapped inside the green house and growth of plants is stimulated because optimum temperature is achieved inside the green house.
Environmental Chemistry

Oxides of Sulphur:They are produced by burning of Sulphurcontaining fossil fuels. This Sulphur dioxide can cause respiratory problems like asthma, emphysema, irritation to eyes, redness in eyes etc.

Oxides of nitrogen: The nitrogen oxides are formed due to lightning strikes at higher altitudes and also due to burning of fossil fuels.It causes irritant red haze, damage leaves of plant, retard rate of photosynthesis also respiratory disorders.

Both Sulphur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide are cause of acid rain

Acid rain ( Environmental Chemistry )

  • It is the one of the major causes of causing cancer. It is formed when rain water mixes with pollutants present in air. These pollutants are mainly Nitrogen dioxide and Sulphur dioxide gas emitted in exhaust of vehicles.

 When rain falls, these gases combine and the following reaction takes place:

SO2  + H2O             H2SO4

NO2+ H2O            HNO3

As a result, rain water no longer remains only pure water it becomes acidic

Harmful effects:

  1. It causes cancer.
  2. It combines with marble and deteriorates the marble.
  3. It affects ph. of soil and makes it unfit for growing plants.
  4. It affects aquatic life too

Hydrocarbons:They are produced due to combustion of fuels are actually carcinogenic that causes cancer. They also harm plants as they cause ageing in plants, shedding of leaves etc.

Chlorofluorocarbons:They are released into the atmosphere from industries. They are actually manmade industrial chemicals used in air conditioners, refrigeratorsetc. and their vapours do not remain in lower layers of atmosphere they move up and cause thinning of ozone.

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