Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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Physical properties of H2

  1. It is colourless.
  2. It is odourless.
  3. It is tasteless.
  4. Its vapor density = 1 (lighter than air).
  5. It is non – poisonous.
  6. It is solubility in H2O is very low.

Chemical Properties –

  1. It is chemicaly inert at room temperature.
  • Its chemical nature depends upon Bond dissocitaion energy of ( H – H)bond.
  • The Bond dissociation energy is high because of comparable sizes . Due to small size ,it requires high temperature to break the bond that is 2000k or more than that . At 5000k  it gets 95.5% dissociates.
  • Although the Bond dissociation energy is high for H – H, but still Hydrogen is reactive . It has  only 1 valence electron so, it combines or we can say react to attain 2electrons  is its  

               It Can attain stability by :

 Class 11th Chemistry Hydrogen Notes and NCERT Solution
Class 11th Chemistry Hydrogen Notes and NCERT Solution
  • Burning in presence of O2 – It reacts with oxygen to form water and the reaction is exothermic.

               2H2      + O2    –> H2O + Energy               

            Hydrogen Oxygen     Water   

  • Reaction with halogens : it react with halogens to form respectives halides as shown below :

            H2      +    Cl2    –> 2HCl  

        Hydrogen   Chlorine     HydrogenChloride

  • Reaction with N-metal –

It reacts with many non metals to form hydrides. Like with sulphur it forms sulphides ,with Oxygen it forms oxides ,with Flourine it forms flourides etc  as shown below :

 1.  H2             + S          –> H2S

      Hydrogen  Sulphur  HydrogenSulphide

2.  2H2      + O2    –> H2O                

   Hydrogen Oxygen     Water

3. H2          +   F2  –>   HF

   Hydrogen    Fluroide   HydrogenFluroide

4. N2   + 3H2   –>  2NH3(Haber’s Process) (In the presence of catalyst) 

 Nitrogen   Hydrogen              Ammonia

  • H2 as Reducing agent –

As we have discussed in the introduction of hydrogen ,that it act as a reduvcing agent so, here we have certains examples as given below :

Class 11th Chemistry Hydrogen Notes and NCERT Solution
  •  Hydrogenation of Oils –

            It is the Process of converting vegetable oil into vanaspati ghee by adding H2 in presence of catalyst nickel.

Vegetable Oil —> Vanaspati Ghee(In presence of Ni)

Uses of H2 –

  • It is used as rocket fuel because of its high calorific value.
  • OxyHydrogenflame is used for welding.
  • It helps in synthesis of NH3(ammonia) , HNO3 (niric acid),HCl(hydrochloric acid) etc.
  • It helps in the synthesis of vanspati ghee.
  • It is a reducing agent .
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