Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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About Lesson

Homologous series

It is defined as series of similarly, constituent compounds having same functional group and same chemical properties, and they differ by CH2 group and atomic mass by 14 a.m.u .

IUPAC system (Geneva system)

It is international union of pure & applied Chemistry. This system was introduced in 1947 revised in 1933.According to this name of compound consist of 3 parts that is:

Prefix  WordRoot  Suffix

Word root: ( Organic Chemistry )

Organic Chemistry Class 11th Chapter 12 Notes and NCERT Solution. Class 11th Chapter wise Notes and NCERT solution for students


Suffix  two types:- 1. Primary (Indicates the bond)

2. Secondary (Indicates the functional group)

Primary Suffix

  • Indicate the type of bond between Carbon atoms like:
  • Single Bond(ane)
  • Double Bond(ene)
  • Triple Bond(yne)
  • If two or three double or triple bond or present so, they are named as di, tri, tert etc.

 Secondary suffix

  • Indicate the functional group
Organic Chemistry Class 11th Chapter 12 Notes and NCERT Solution. Class 11th Chapter wise Notes and NCERT solution for students

Note: While adding secondary suffix to primary suffix ‘e’ of primary suffix is dropped, if sec suffix begins with vowel.


 Indicate substituent present in compound.

They can be

  • Alkyl group’s (which have one Hydrogen less than alkane).

                Example:- CH3– methyl , C2H5 – Ethyl

  • Functional group – If more than two functional groups are present, than one is treated as main functional group and other as substituent. The prefix used for functional groups are:

F = Fluoro 

Cl = Chloro

Br = Bromo

I = Iodo

NO2+ = Nitro

NH2 = Amino

NO = Nitro

N=N = Diazo

OCH3 = Methoxy

OC2H5 = Ethoxy

OH = Hydroxy

Different Type of Organic Compounds

  1. Hydrocarbon

They are of two types:

  • Saturated
  • Unsaturated

Saturated: They are called as Alkanes (paraffins) with general formula CnH2n+2

 Unsaturated: They are also called as olefins. They may be –

  • Alkenes (general formula CnH2n).
  • Alkynes (general formula CnH2n-2.).

10 = If carbon atom is joined one other Carbo atom(primary)

20 = If carbon atom is joined two other Carbo atom(secondary)

30 = If carbon atom is joined three other Carbo atom(tertiary)

40 = If carbon atom is joined four other Carbo atom(quaternary)

 Alkyl halides (Haloalkanes)                                                

Like in CH4 the one Hydrogen atom is replaced by Halogen. So, it becomes CH3Cl . The general name of it is Haloalkane.

Formula :- CnH2n+1(RX)

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