It is defined as series of similarly, constituent compounds having same functional group and same chemical properties, and they differ by CH2 group and atomic mass by 14 a.m.u .
IUPAC system (Geneva system)
It is international union of pure & applied Chemistry. This system was introduced in 1947 revised in 1933.According to this name of compound consist of 3 parts that is:
Prefix WordRoot Suffix
Word root: ( Organic Chemistry )
Suffix two types:- 1. Primary (Indicates the bond)
2. Secondary (Indicates the functional group)
- Indicate the type of bond between Carbon atoms like:
- Single Bond(ane)
- Double Bond(ene)
- Triple Bond(yne)
- If two or three double or triple bond or present so, they are named as di, tri, tert etc.
- Indicate the functional group
Note: While adding secondary suffix to primary suffix ‘e’ of primary suffix is dropped, if sec suffix begins with vowel.
Indicate substituent present in compound.
They can be
- Alkyl group’s (which have one Hydrogen less than alkane).
Example:- CH3– methyl , C2H5 – Ethyl
- Functional group – If more than two functional groups are present, than one is treated as main functional group and other as substituent. The prefix used for functional groups are:
F = Fluoro
Cl = Chloro
Br = Bromo
I = Iodo
NO2+ = Nitro
NH2– = Amino
NO = Nitro
N=N = Diazo
OCH3 = Methoxy
OC2H5 = Ethoxy
OH = Hydroxy
Different Type of Organic Compounds
They are of two types:
Saturated: They are called as Alkanes (paraffins) with general formula CnH2n+2
Unsaturated: They are also called as olefins. They may be –
- Alkenes (general formula CnH2n).
- Alkynes (general formula CnH2n-2.).
10 = If carbon atom is joined one other Carbo atom(primary)
20 = If carbon atom is joined two other Carbo atom(secondary)
30 = If carbon atom is joined three other Carbo atom(tertiary)
40 = If carbon atom is joined four other Carbo atom(quaternary)
Alkyl halides (Haloalkanes)
Like in CH4 the one Hydrogen atom is replaced by Halogen. So, it becomes CH3Cl . The general name of it is Haloalkane.
Formula :- CnH2n+1(RX)