Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
Class 11th Chemistry Online Class: Elevate Your CBSE Board Success
About Lesson

Types of chemical bond

  • Electrovalent or ionic bond
  • Covalent bond
  • Coordinate bond

Ionic bond and factors affecting it

  • It is formed by transfer of electrons.
  • It is formed between metal and no metal.
  • In it metal always loses electrons and non-metal always accepts electron.

For example:

  1. Sodium chloride
Class 11th Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure

Factors affecting the formation of ionic bond

The factors are:

  • Low ionization energy
  • High electron affinity
  • High lattice enthalpy
  • Low ionization energy: The metals with low ionization energy favor the formation of ionic bond. As lower is the ionization energy more readily it will lose electrons.
  • High electron gain enthalpy: The non-metal participating should have high electron gain enthalpy because more it will have attraction, for upcoming electron more readily the bond will be formed.
  • Lattice enthalpy: It is the amount of energy needed to break one mole of bonds into its constituents, or the energy released when constituents combine to form on 1 mole of a compound. More is the lattice energy, more stable is the bond formed. All the compounds in which ionic bond is present are called as ionic compounds.

General properties of ionic compounds:

  1. Physical state: They form definite pattern that is crystal lattice. Crystal lattice is 3D arrangement of cation and an anion.

For example, in NaCl crystal due to crystal formation they all are solids due to strong bonding between constituents.

  1. Melting and boiling point: They have high melting and boiling points because of strong attraction between constituents.
  2. Solubility: We know like dissolves like. So, polar compounds are soluble in polar solvents. Now, ionic compounds have a charge that is they are polar. Therefore, they will dissolve in polar solvents like water. So, all ionic compounds are soluble in polar solvents and insoluble in organic solvents.
  3. Electrical conductivity: It is due to free movement of free ions when ionic compound is dissolved in water. When dissolved they break into ions and conduct electricity.
  4. Non directional in nature: When we are talking of directions in 3D structure, we are talking about 3 coordinate .So, in NaCl or any other ionic compounds the ion can take place in any direction .There direction is not fixed. Therefore, they are non-directional in nature.
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