Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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Ionization Enthalpy of alkaline earth metal

  • Ionization energy is the quantity of energy required to remove loosely bound electron from an atom.
  • They have low ionization enthalpies due to fairly large size of the atoms.
  • Ionization enthalpy decreases with the increase in atomic size down the group.

Hydration Enthalpy of alkaline earth metal

  • The energy released as a result of the formation of new bonds between ions and water molecules is called hydration enthalpy.
  • Hydration enthalpiesof alkaline earth metal ions decrease with the increasing ionic size down the group.

Physical Properties of alkaline earth metal

  • The alkaline earth metals are silverywhite, soft and lustrous.
  • But they are somewhat harder than alkali metals.
  • Beryllium andmagnesium are greyish in colour.
  • Melting and boiling points of these metalsare higher than corresponding alkali metal.
  • They have low ionizationenthalpy which makes them strongly electropositive that increasesdown the group from Be to Ba.
  • When exposed to flame calcium, strontium and barium imparts brick red, crimson and apple green colours

Chemical Properties of alkaline earth metal

(i) Reactivity towards air and water

Beryllium and magnesium are kinetically inert to oxygen and water due to an oxide film on their surface.

Powdered beryllium burns brilliantly on ignition in air to give BeO and Be3N2.

Magnesium is more electropositive and burns with dazzling brilliance in air to give MgO and Mg3N2.

Calcium, strontium and barium react with water and air.

(ii) Reactivity towards the halogens

They combine with halogen to form halides.

M+ X2 –> MX2

(iii) Reactivity towards hydrogen

Alkaline earth metals elements except beryllium combine with hydrogen upon heating to form their hydrides.

But BeH2 can be prepared by following process too.

2BeCl2 +LiAlH4 –> 2BeH2 +LiCl + AlCl3

(iv) Reactivity towards acids

They readily react with acids liberating dihydrogen.

M +2HCl –> MCl2 + H2

 (vi) Solutions in liquid ammonia

Dissolve in liquid ammonia to give deep blue black solutions forming ammoniated ions.

 M + (x+y) NH3 –> [M (NH3) x] 2+ + 2[e (NH3) y]


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