Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
Class 11th Chemistry Online Class: Elevate Your CBSE Board Success
About Lesson




As we have already studied about Daltons Atomic Theory of Matter, and later it was concluded that Atom is made up of 3 sub -atomic particles. The particles are Electron, Proton and Neutron. In this chapter ,we will study about different attempts made to explain atomic models .The phenomenon that leads to development of dual nature of Light and Matter .Also, we will deal with the methods to be followed while writing electronic configurations, and much more . Let us see that first how these fundamental particles were discovered, and how they are arranged in structure of Atom.


The Electron was discovered by J.J Thomson by conducting a Cathode ray tube experiment.

For the experiment he used Crooke’s tube, which was 60cm long glass tube and had a small tube attached. To this small tube vacuum pump was attached, it also had two metal plates which were connected to battery by wires.

Class 11th Chemistry Chapter 2 Structure of Atom Notes and NCERT Solution

When current was passed under same conditions it also started   glowing green. This confirmed that under those conditions some rays were emitted through cathode, and were travelling towards anode. Those rays were called as cathode rays and found to consist of negatively charged particles called electron.

Properties of cathode rays

They are found to travel in straight line. This property was concluded by performing an activity where the object was placed in their path. When they strike it ,they casted the shadow of the object as shown below:

Class 11th Chemistry Chapter 2 Structure of Atom Notes and NCERT Solution

From the above properties and experiment it was concluded that cathode rays are made up of negatively charged particles called electron.

Further experiments were carried out in order to know the charge and mass of electron. It was found to be:

  • Charge :1.6 x 10-19C
  • Mass 9.1 x 10-31kg

We can define electron as:

  • A fundamental particle that is negatively charge of magnitude 1.6 x 10-19C and mass equal to 9.1 x 10-31
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