Lesson List
CHAPTER 3: CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
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CHAPTER 7: EQUILIBRIUM
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
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CHAPTER 10: S-BLOCK ELEMENTS
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
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CHAPTER 12: CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUND
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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Lesson: Entropy || How s & q related? || How S&T related? || Second law of thermodynamics || Standard molar entropy || Gibbs free energy || Third law of thermodynamics
About Lesson

Entropy: is “measure if degree of randomness.”It is   denoted by S, it is a state function and extensive property.

∆S = ∆Sp – ∆Sr

In term of energy it is given as:

∆S = (qrev/t)

How s & q related?

When q increases, kinetic energy increase, randomness increases, entropy also increase.

How S&T related?

Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 Thermodynamics Notes
Thermodynamics

Second law of thermodynamics

To determine spontaneous, total entropy is needed.

∆S >0 = spontaneous

∆S = 0 Equilibrium

∆S < 0 Non-Spontaneous

Stotal = Ssystem + SSurroundings

∆Ssys depends on the following:-

Absolute entropy depends upon

  • Mass
  • Molecular structure
  • Temperature &pressure

Standard molar entropy:

It is the entropy for 1 mole of substance at 298k & 1 atm.

It is represented as:         

Class 11 Chemistry Chapter 6 Thermodynamics Notes
Thermodynamics

Gibbs free energy

  • It is denoted by G
  • It is given by G = H – TS
  • It is state function
  • Extensive property
  • ∆G = ∆H – T∆S ( at constant t)

It is defined as the amount of energy for a system that can be converted into useful work.

∆G = (-ve) spontaneous

∆G = 0 Equilibrium

∆G = (+ve) Non-Spontaneous

Spontaneity in terms of free energy change:

We know

∆G = ∆H – T∆S

This equation takes into account both the concepts (a) energy factor and other (b) entropy factor

Depending upon the signs of h and t.s. and their relative magnitudes the following possibilities arise:

  1. When both H and T.S are negative: Energy factor favours and randomness oppose then: if H <T.S(non-spontaneous), G=negative
  • When both H = T.S the process is in equilibrium and G =0
  1. when both H and T.S are positive: Energy factor opposes and randomness favours then:
  • If H >T. S process is non spontaneous, G =+ve
  • If H<T.S process is spontaneous, G= -ve
  • If H=T.S the process is in equilibrium, G=0
  1. When H = -ve and T.S =+ve, process is spontaneous and G= -ve
  2. When H = +ve and T.S =-ve, process is non spontaneous and G= +ve

Effect of temperature on spontaneity of process

Endothermic process à high t-> spontaneous

Exothermic process à low t-> spontaneous

Third law of thermodynamics:

  • At absolute zero, the entropy of perfect crystalline is o.
  • Please note there are certain substances which possess certain entropy even at absolute zero. This entropy is also known as residual entropy.
  • The origin of residual entropy can be explained on the basis of the disorder which remains at absolute zero in certain crystals composed of ab types of molecules where a and b are similar atoms .
  • There is little energy difference between ab—ab—ab and ab –ba—ba –ab and other arrangements so that the molecules adopt the orientation ab and ba at random in solid .this give rise to residual entropy .
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Lesson List
CHAPTER 3: CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
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CHAPTER 7: EQUILIBRIUM
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
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CHAPTER 10: S-BLOCK ELEMENTS
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
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CHAPTER 12: CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUND
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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