Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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About Lesson


  • Environment means surroundings or conditions in which a person, animal or plant lives. It consists of air, water, soil, land i.e. everything around us.
  • Due to certain undesired activities our environment is getting spoiled and the time is not so far when earth will not be able to sustain life
  • Lets discuss few important threats and the preventive measures for them
  • environment of atmosphere which further has many layer
  • There are different layers of atmosphere which are as follows:
  • Atmosphere
  • Hydrosphere
  • Troposphere
  • Stratosphere
  • We will consider all the layers of atmosphere in more detail as well as we will discuss about the different types of pollution and pollutants.


Atmosphere is actually an envelope of gases that surround us. Atmosphere serves very important functions like:

  • Atmosphere Contain gases which are essential for the life like oxygen, carbon dioxideetc.
  • It has water vapor that is important for all life.
  • Ozone is present that protect us from ultra violet rays
  • It maintains heat balance and by this it controls weather or climatic conditions etc.

Environmental chemistry

“It is a branch of chemistry that deals with the study of chemical phenomenon occupying in the atmosphere.”

Environmental pollution:

It can be defined as the “undesirable change in our surroundings that causes lot of harmful effects.”

Environmental Chemistry Class 11th Notes & Solution
Environmental Chemistry

The substances that are undesirable and cause lot of harm are called pollutants.

Atmospheric pollution:

  • There are different layers of atmosphere and the lower layer or region in which we live is known as troposphere.
  • Troposphere contains air, watervapor, clouds; dustetc. in this layer the cloud formation takesplace.
  • Atmospherepollution is mainly caused in troposphere and atmosphere.
  • The protective layer that is ozone which is found in stratosphere is adversely affected by pollutants and this layer is very important to us as it prevent the entry of ultra violet rays which otherwise can cause lot of diseases.

The major causes of pollution are:

  • Fast population growth
  • Rapid urbanization
  • Industrialization
  • Use of pesticides etc.
  • Note :There is a difference between a contaminant and a pollutant which as follows:-

Contaminant is not present in nature but is introduced into the environment by human activity

Pollutant is a substance that are produced either by natural source or by human activity and due to increase its concentration the harm is caused to living forms

Threshold limit valueis the permissible limit of a pollutant in atmosphere to which if a healthy worker is exposed for 8hours or 40 hours a week there is no effect on him.

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