Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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Introduction ( Hydrocarbons Notes and Solution Class 11 Chemistry )

These are compounds of Hydrogen and carbon and we can derive other compounds from it by substituting Hydrogen with some other groups.

They are generally called Fuel Compounds:

Like                 CH₄                  – is used as Biogas.

                        Butane            -is used in LPG.

                        Hydrocarbons -are used in Kerosene, Diesel, Gasoline etc.

Classification of hydrocarbons

Hydrocarbons Notes and Solution Class 11 Chemistry
Hydrocarbons Notes and Solution Class 11 Chemistry

Aromatic: They have at least one Benzene ring.

Hydrocarbons Notes and Solution Class 11 Chemistry
Hydrocarbons Notes and Solution Class 11 Chemistry


They are saturated Hydrocarbons with General Formulaà CH2n +2

                                                Where “n” = number of atoms in a chain.

These alkanes may be open chain like CH4, C2H6, C3H8, C4H10   , C5H12   

These can be cyclic alkanes with formula Cn H2n like Cyclopropane etc.


Introduction of alkanes

Structure of Alkanes – In them there is Sp3 hybridisation as explained below:

Atomic number of carbon = 6

 C = 1s2 2s2 2p2

       1s2, 2s1   2px1  2py1  2pz1         [ it is Tetravalent]

So, in  CH(Methane) the structure is:

Hydrocarbons Notes and Solution Class 11 Chemistry


While writing their IUPAC names the suffix used is “ane”.

For example: For writing name of CH4 the suffix used is “ane” that is “methane”.

Few more examples: like

  • 2, 5 dimethyl hexane
  • 3 ethyl – 2 , 2 dimethyl hexane
  • Cyclohexane
  • Methyl Cyclohexane

As you can clearly observe their names and see that their names end with “ane” so just by looking at their names we can make out they all are alkanes.

Isomerism is alkanes 

Isomers: They are the compounds with same molecular formula but different Structural formula.

Alkanes: They show structural isomerism that is Chain isomerism is common in them.

In chain isomerism: In it the molecular formula is same, but the skeletal arrangement of atoms in chain is different.

Please note this that it is not shown by CH4, C2Hand C3 Hthat is methane, ethane and propane. It starts with Butane as shown below:

Hydrocarbons Notes and Solution Class 11 Chemistry
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