Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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Question 1.  What are hybridisation states of each carbon atom in the following compounds? CH2=C=O, CH3CH=CH2, (CH3)2CO, CH2=CHCN, C6H6.


Question 2. Indicate the a- and n-bonds in the following molecules:
C6H6 , C6H12, CH2Cl2, CH=C=CH2, CH3NO2, HCONHCH3

Organic Chemistry

Question 3. Write bond-line formulas for: Isopropyl alcohol, 2,3-Dimethylbutanal, Heptan-4-one.

Question 4. Give the TUPAC names of the following compounds:

Answer:  (a) Propylbenzene (b) 3-Methylpentanenitrite (c) 2, 5-Dimethylheptane
(d) 3-Bromo- 3-chloroheptane (e) 3-Chloropropanal (f) 2, 2-Dichloroethanol

Question 5.Which of the following represents the correct TUPAC name for the compounds concerned?
(a) 2, 2-Dimethylpentane or 2-Dimethylpentane (b) 2, 4, 7-Trimethyloctane or 2, 5, 7- Trimethyloctane (c) 2-Chloro-4-methylpentane or 4-Chloro-2-methylpentane (d) But-3-yn- l-ol or But-4-ol-yne.
Answer: (a) 2, 2-Demethylpentane (b)2, 4, 7-Trimethyloctane. For two alkyl groups on the same carbon its locant is repeated twice, 2, 4, 7-locant set is lower than 2, 5, 7.
(c) 2- Chloro-4-methylpentane. Alphabetical order of substituents, (d) But-3-yn-l-ol. Lower locant for the principal functional group, i.e., alcohol.

Question 6. Draw formulas for the first five members of each homologous series beginning with the following compounds,
(a) H—COOH (b) CH3COCH3 (c) H—CH=CH2
Answer: (a) CH3—COOH
(b) CH3COCH3
(c) H—CH=CH2

Question 7. Give condensed and bond line structural formulas and identify the functional group(s) present, if any, for: (a) 2, 2, 4-Trimethylpentane (b) 2-Hydroxy-l, 2, 3-propanetricarboxylic acid (c) Hexanedial.

Organic Chemistry

Question 8. Identify the functional groups in the following compounds:


Organic Chemistry

Question 9. Which of the two: O2NCH2CH2O or CH3CH2O is expected to be more stable and why?
Answer:  O2N——<——- CH2——<——- CH2 —<——- O is more stable than CH3——<——-CH2——<——-O- because NO2 group has -I-effect and hence it tends to disperse the -ve charge on the O-atom. In contrast, CH3CH2 has +I-effect. It, therefore, tends to intensify the -ve charge and hence destabilizes it.

Question 10. Explain why alkyl groups act as electron donors when attached to a π-system.
Answer:  Due to hyperconjugation, alkyl groups act as electron donors when attached to a π- system as shown below:

Organic Chemistry

Question 11. Draw the resonance structures for the following compounds. Show the electron shift using curved-arrow notation. (a) C6H5OH (b) C6H5N02 (c)  CH3CH=CHCHO (d) C6H5—CHO (e) C6H5—CH(f) Ch3Ch=ChCh2

Organic Chemistry

Question 12. What are electrophiles and nucleophiles? Explain with examples:
Answer:  Electrophiles: The name electrophiles means electron loving. Electrophiles are electron deficient. They may be positive ions or neutral molecules.
Ex: H+, Cl+, Br+, NO2+, R3C+, RN2+, AlCl3, BF3
Nucleophiles: The name nucleophiles means ‘nucleus loving’ and indicates that it attacks the region of low electron density (positive centres) in a substrate molecule. They are electron rich they may be negative ions or neutral molecules.
Ex: Cl Br, CN, OH, RCR2, NH3, RNH2, H2O, ROH etc.

Question 13. Identify the reagents shown in bold in the following equations as nucleophiles or electrophiles
(a) CH3COOH + HO ———–> CH3COO + H2O
(b) CH3COCH3 + CN ———–> (CH3)2 C(CN)(OH)
(c) C6H5 + CH3CO ———–> C6H5COCH3
Answer: Nucleophiles: (a) and (b) and Electrophile : (c)

Question 14. Classify the following reactions in one of the reaction type studied in this unit.
(a) CH3CH2Br + HS ———–> CH3CH2SH + Br
(b) (CH3)2C=CH2 + HCl ———–> (CH3)2CCl—CH3
(c) CH3CH2Br + HO ———–> CH2=CH2 + H2O + Br
(d) (CH3)3C—CH2OH + HBr ———–> (CH3)2 C Br CH2CH2CH3 + H2O
Answer: (a) Nucleophilic substitution (b) Electrophilic addition
(c)Bimolecular elimination (d) Nucleophilic substitution with rearrangement.

Organic Chemistry
Organic Chemistry

Question 17. Explain the terms inductive and electromeric effects. Which electron displacement effect explain the following correct orders of acidity of the carboxylic acids?
Answer:  Inductive Effect: The inductive effect refers to the polarity produced in a molecule as a result of higher electronegativity of one atom compared to another.Atoms or groups which lose electron towards a carbon atom are said to have +1 Effect.
Those atoms or groups which draw electron away from a carbon atom are said to have -I Effect.
Commomexamples of -I effect are:
NO2, F, Cl, Br, I, OH etc.
Examples of +1 effect are (Electron releasing)
(CH3)2C— , (CH3)2CH—, CH3CH2— CH3— etc.
Electromeric effect: The electromeric effect refers to the polarity produced in a multiple bonded compound as it is approached by a reagent.

Question 18. Give a brief description of the principles of the following techniques taking an example in each case: (a) Crystallisation (b) Distillation (c) Chromatography
Answer: (a) Crystallisation: In this process the impure solid is dissolved in the minimum volume of a suitable solvent. The soluble impurities pass into the solution while the insoluble ones left behind. The hot solution is then filtered and allowed to cool undisturbed till crystallisation is complete. The crystals are then separated from the mother liquor by filtraration and dried.
Example: crystallisation of sugar.
(b) Distillation: The operation of distillation is employed for the purification of liquids from non-volatile impurities. The impure liquid is boiled in a flask and the vapours so formed are collected and condensed to give back pure liquid in another vessel. Simple organic liquids such as benzene toluene, xylene etc. can be purified.
(c) Chromatography: Chromatography is based on the principle of selective distribution of the components of a mixture between two phases, a stationary phase and a moving phase. The stationary phase can be a solid or liquid, while the moving phase is a liquid or a gas. When the stationary phase is solid the basis is adsorption and when it is a liquid the basis is partition. Chromatography is generally used for the Reparation of coloured substances such as plant pigments or dyestuffs.

Question 19. Describe the method, which can be used to separate two compounds with different solubilities in a solvent S.
Answer: Fractional crystallisation is used for this purpose. A hot saturated solution of these two compounds is allowed to cool, the less soluble compound crystallises out while the more soluble remains in the solution. The crystals are separated from the mother liquor and the mother liquor is again concentrated and the hot solution again allowed to cool when the crystals of the second compound are obtained. These are again filtered and dried.

Question 20. What is the difference between distillation, distillation under reduced pressure and steam distillation?
Answer: Distillation is used in case of volatile liquid mixed with non-volatile impurities.
Distillation under reduced pressure: This method is used to purify such liquids which have very high boiling points and which decompose at or below their boiling points.
Steam distillation is used to purify steam volatile liquids associated with water immiscible impuritites.

Question 22. Differentiate between the principle of estimation of nitrogen in an organic compound by (i) Dumas method (ii) Kjeldahl’s method.
Answer: (i) Dumas method: The organic compound is heated strongly with excess of CuO ‘ (Cupric Oxide) in an atmosphere of CO2 when free nitrogen, CO2 and H2O are obtained.
(ii)Kjeldahl’s method: A known mass of the organic compound is heated strongly with cone. H2SO4, a little potassium sulphate and a little mercury (a catalyst). As a result of reaction the nitrogen present in the organic compound is converted to ammonium sulphate.

Organic Chemistry

Question 25. Why is nitric acid added to sodium extract before adding silver nitrate for testing halogens ?
Answer: Nitric acid is added to sodium extract so as to decompose
NaCN + HNO3 ——-> NaNO3 + HCN
Na2S + 2HNO3 ——> 2NaNO3 + H2S

Question 26. Explain the reason for the fusion of an organic compound with metallic sodium for testing nitrogen, sulphur and halogens.
Answer: Organic compound is fused with sodium metal so as to convert organic compounds into NaCN, Na2S, NaX and Na3PO4. Since these are ionic compounds and become more reactive and thus can be easily tested by suitable reagents.

Question 27. Name a suitable technique of separation of the components from a mixture of calcium sulphate and camphor.
Answer: Sublimation.Because camphor can sublime whereas CaSO4 does not.

Question 28. Explain, why an organic liquid vaporises at a temperature below its boiling point in its steam distillation ?
Answer: It is because in steam distillation the sum of vapour pressure of organic compound and steam should be equal to atmospheric pressure.

Question 29.Will CCl4 give white precipitate of AgCl on heating it with silver nitrate? Give reason for your answer.
Answer:  No. CCl4 is a completely non-polar covalent compound whereas AgNO3 is ionic in nature. Therefore they are not expected to react and thus a white ppt. of silver chloride will not be formed.

Question 30. Why is a solution of potassium hydroxide used to absorb carbon dioxide evolved during the estimation of carbon present in an organic compound?
Answer:  CO2 is acidic in nature and therefore, it reacts with the strong base KOH to form K2CO3.
2KOH + CO2 ——–> K2CO3+ H2O.

Organic Chemistry

Question 33. 0.50 g of an organic compound was Kjeldahlished. The ammonia evolved was passed in 50 cm3 of IN H2SO4. The residual acid required 60 cm3 of N/2 NaOH solution. Calculate the percentage of nitrogen in the compound.

Organic Chemistry
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