Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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About Lesson


Everything in our surroundings are known as matter. They may be the food we eat, the vehicles, the gadgets, the day to day materials that we use, the air we breathe or the water that we drink. All of these things occupy some space and have mass and volume. For instance, in classrooms the benches that the students use to sit occupy some space of the classroom. They have mass and volume and hence they can be regarded as matter.

According to the Indian philosophers matter can classified into five primitive elements. They are also known as Pancha Tatva– air, soil, fire, and water. Every living or non-living is made up these five primitive elements.

States of Matter Notes &  Solution Class 11 Chemistry

States of Matter Notes &  Solution Class 11 Chemistry

Liquid State

  • A liquid has no definite shape and takes up the shape of the container in which it is kept.
  • A liquid has a definite volume due to weaker intermolecular force of attraction than solids.
  • They can flow from a higher lever to a lower level.
  • A liquid is compressible due to larger distance between the neighbouring molecules than solid but lesser than gas.
  • They have lower density.
  • A liquid can diffuse into another liquid due to fact that molecules move faster in a liquid but is slower as compared to gases.
States of Matter Notes &  Solution Class 11 Chemistry

Gaseous State

  • They do not have definite shape and take up the shape of the container.
  • They do not possess definite volume due to weakest intermolecular forces.
  • They are not rigid.
  • They are easily compressible due to excess space between the particles of gas which compresses on applying pressure.
  • They can easily undergo diffusion due to the fact that molecules in a gas move at a very fast rate due to which speed of diffusion is very large.
  • They can flow in all possible directions.
States of Matter Notes &  Solution Class 11 Chemistry
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