Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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About Lesson


We have studied about so many elements till now .Out of 114 elements, most of them occur in combined state. Only noble gases occur in atomic state otherwise, most of them exist in molecular or combined form.

The combined state is formed by combination of elements that  is a chemical bond. Like families, have connections in the same way the attraction of chemical species is called chemical bond.

The reason behind the formation of chemical bond is to obey octet rule .According to this rule, “every element needs to attain stability. For this, the elements either loose or gain electrons to attain 8 electrons in its outermost shell” .But certain violation were seen like in case of hydrogen, the atom has tendency to attain only 2 electrons in valence shell .So, in case of it the rule is violated and is called as Duplet rule.

Other violations are: In certain molecules, the deficient octet is seen. For example  in H2 ,whereas in others the central atom has expanded octet that is more than 8 electrons like in SF6.

When two atoms come closer, their outer electrons repel each other and finally they stop at a distance where the released energy is more .As less energy corresponds to maximum stability than at that distance the chemical bond is formed.

Class 11th Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure
Chemical Bonding
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