Course Content
CHAPTER 3: CLASSIFICATION OF ELEMENTS
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
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CHAPTER 7: EQUILIBRIUM
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
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CHAPTER 10: S-BLOCK ELEMENTS
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
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CHAPTER 12: CHARACTERIZATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUND
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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About Lesson

DISCOVERY OF PROTON:

 IT WAS DONE BY E. GOLDSTEIN

  • In 1836 the same experiment was carried out where the same conditions were provided. The gas at low pressure was taken and current was passed.
  • The high voltage between the electrodes was passed. It was found that when cathode rays passed through the gas, they ionized the gas by taking electrons along, leaving behind positively ionized gas particles.
  • These particles were travelling towards cathode.These particles were found to form the beam of rays of positively charged particles and were called as canal rays.
  • These rays consist of positively charged particles called a proton.

Properties of anode rays

  1. They also travel in straight line.
  2. They are also made up of particles.
  3. They carry positive charge.
  4. Their ratio of charge to mass was different for different gas that was taken in tube.
  5. The mass of particles were found to be different for different gases. It was nearly equal to the mass of atom.

When hydrogen gas was taken in the tube its mass was found to be minimum. As we know, Hydrogen atom is the lightest one and its charge to be same as Electron. It is 1.6×10-19C and its e/m ratio taken as standard that is 1.67x 10-24g.

Proton is defined as a

fundamental particle which carries one-unit positive charge and mass nearly same as hydrogen atom.”

DISCOVERY OF NEUTRON:

It was discovered by Chadwick. In which he bombarded some light elements with fast moving alpha particles. He found, that some new particles were emitted which carried no charge and had mass equal to that of proton.These neutral particles were named as neutron.

          So, neutron is defined as:

the fundamental particle which carries no charge and mass equal to that of hydrogen atom.”

ATOMIC MODELS OF ATOM

J.J THOMSON PLUM PUDDING MODEL

In 1904, the attempt to explain structure of Atom was done by J.J Thomson.

Class 11th Chemistry Chapter 2 Structure of Atom Notes and NCERT Solution
structure of atom
Class 11th Chemistry Chapter 2 Structure of Atom Notes and NCERT Solution
Class 11th Chemistry Chapter 2 Structure of Atom Notes and NCERT Solution
structure of atom
Class 11th Chemistry Chapter 2 Structure of Atom Notes and NCERT Solution
Class 11th Chemistry Chapter 2 Structure of Atom Notes and NCERT Solution
structure of atom

He said,

  • Atom is electrically neutral.
  • Nucleus is in center.
  • In which protons & neutrons are present.
  • Outside nucleus electrons revolve like planets revolve around sun.

He said, atom is made of two parts: nucleus and extra nuclear part .

In Nucleus, positive charge is present and in extra nuclear part electrons are present as shown in figure:

Proton  -> (+)vely charged 

Electron  -> (-)vely charged 

Neutron  -> No charge

Limitation : he failed to explain the stability of an atom”.

          According To Electromagnetic theory, a charged particle revolving in circular path continuously emits energy and shorten its path.

Class 11th Chemistry Chapter 2 Structure of Atom Notes and NCERT Solution
Class 11th Chemistry Chapter 2 Structure of Atom Notes and NCERT Solution
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