Course Content
Section Name Topic Name 3 Classification of Elements and Periodicity in Properties 3.1 Why do we Need to Classify Elements ? 3.2 Genesis of Periodic Classification 3.3 Modern Periodic Law and the present form of the Periodic Table 3.4 Nomenclature of Elements with Atomic Numbers > 100 3.5 Electronic Configurations of Elements and the Periodic Table 3.6 Electronic Configurations and Types of Elements: s-, p-, d-, f – Blocks 3.7 Periodic Trends in Properties of Elements
Section Name Topic Name 7 Equilibrium 7.1 Equilibrium in Physical Processes 7.2 Equilibrium in Chemical Processes – Dynamic Equilibrium 7.3 Law of Chemical Equilibrium and Equilibrium Constant 7.4 Homogeneous Equilibria 7.5 Heterogeneous Equilibria 7.6 Applications of Equilibrium Constants 7.7 Relationship between Equilibrium Constant K, Reaction Quotient Q and Gibbs Energy G 7.8 Factors Affecting Equilibria 7.9 Ionic Equilibrium in Solution 7.10 Acids, Bases and Salts 7.11 Ionization of Acids and Bases 7.12 Buffer Solutions 7.13 Solubility Equilibria of Sparingly Soluble Salts
Section Name Topic Name 10 The s-Block Elements 10.1 Group 1 Elements: Alkali Metals 10.2 General Characteristics of the Compounds of the Alkali Metals 10.3 Anomalous Properties of Lithium 10.4 Some Important Compounds of Sodium 10.5 Biological Importance of Sodium and Potassium 10.6 Group 2 Elements : Alkaline Earth Metals 10.7 General Characteristics of Compounds of the Alkaline Earth Metals 10.8 Anomalous Behaviour of Beryllium 10.9 Some Important Compounds of Calcium 10.10 Biological Importance of Magnesium and Calcium
Section Name Topic Name 12 Organic Chemistry – Some Basic Principles and Techniques 12.1 General Introduction 12.2 Tetravalence of Carbon: Shapes of Organic Compounds 12.3 Structural Representations of Organic Compounds 12.4 Classification of Organic Compounds 12.5 Nomenclature of Organic Compounds 12.6 Isomerism 12.7 Fundamental Concepts in Organic Reaction Mechanism 12.8 Methods of Purification of Organic Compounds 12.9 Qualitative Analysis of Organic Compounds 12.10 Quantitative Analysis
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Ozone ( Environmental Chemistry )

Ozone: It is a molecule consisting of three oxygen atoms i.e. O₃. It is present in stratosphere.

Ozone is formed when u-v rays in upper atmosphere split oxygen atoms that are: –

When oxygen molecule splits into atoms then each atom combine with undissociated molecule of oxygen to form ozone.

Environmental Chemistry Class 11th Notes & Solution

Ozone protect us from ultra violet radiations as it doesn’t allow ultra violet rays to enter earth’s atmosphere that if enter into earth may harm us in many ways such as:

  • They may raise the temperature of earth
  • It can cause global warming
  • It may cause skin disorders, eye disorders and many more.
  • The thinning of ozone layer by air pollutants is called ozone depletion.

For this some synthetic chemicals are responsible like ChloroFloro Carbons that are used in refrigerators, air conditioners, etc.

Ozone hole

  • Due to continuous use of certain harmful chemicals like CFC’s etc. they have caused thinning of ozone layer to an extent that a hole is observed in ozone layer in the region of Antarctica.
  • This hole is not a hole actually we can say it is the extreme thinning in some parts due to extreme reactions taking place with certain harmful chemicals that are not stable in upper atmosphere and react with ozone causing its depletion

 Montreal protocol:

  •  It is agreement made by industrialized nations to freeze the production of CFC’s and make use of some alternative source.
  • It was done in 1987 UNEP (United Nations Environment Program)

Now, instead of using CFC’s; HFC’S and PFC’s are used that is somehow helping in saving the ozone layer.

Particulate pollutants

  • They are minute solid or liquid particles present in air.These are released by vehicle exhaust, dust and ashes of hydrocarbons.
  • They may be viable like bacteria etc. and non-viable like ash etc.

Non-viable particulates are classified according to nature and size of particles. They are as follows:-

Smoke: Itconsists of solid and liquid particles formed during combustion of fuels etc.


Dust: It is composed of fine solid particles produced during crushing, grinding of solid particles, like saw dust from wood, fly ash from factories etc.

Mist:They are produced by particles of spray liquids and condensation of vapors in air, like insecticides etc.

Fumes:They are obtained by condensation of vapors during sublimation, distillation, boilingetc., like metallic and non-metallic oxides

  • The particulate matter harm but degree of harm depends upon the size of particles particulate pollutants bigger than 5 microns can block nasal passage whereas particle of size micron can even enter lungs.
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